2 F.B.I. = Foodborne Illness Generally refers to illness caused by eating any type of microorganism-contaminated food“Food Poisoning” – usually exposure to microorganisms that cause F.B.I.Comes from bacteria, viruses or other microorganisms in the environment
3 Bacteria FactsAverage person carries ~150 kinds of bacteria in and on surface of the bodyBacteria can spread quickly and easily, requiring only food, moisture, and a good temperature to grow
4 Categories of F.B.I. Agents/Contaminants BacteriaVirusesFound in untreated water & human fecesParasitesTapeworms, roundworms, protozoansFood ToxinsChemicals formed by microbes stored in food stored at improper temperatures
5 Top 10 Reasons for F.B.I. 1. Infected food preparer or poor hygiene 2. Ingesting raw, contaminated foods3. Inadequate cooking & Improper reheating4. Cooling food improperly5. >2 days between preparation and serving
6 Top 10 Reasons for F.B.I. 6. Cross-contamination 7. Toxins (chemical contamination)8. Unsafe food sources(i.e. meat not inspected by the USDA)9. Inadequate cleaning of equipment10. Poor storage practices
12 Temperature Requirements Foods cooked in a microwave must be heated to an additional 25o F above required cooking temperatureReheatingFoods must be rapidly reheated to 165o F, then held at or above 140o FMicrowaved= rapidly reheated to 190o F, then held at/above 140o F
13 Temperature Requirements Cooling:Foods must be cooled from 140 to 70o F within two (2) hours from start of coolingFoods must be cooled from 70 to 41o F within another two (2) hours
14 Prevention of Cross Contamination Wash your hands!!Wash foodsClean & sanitize food contact surfacesAvoid contact between foods and contact surfaces
15 Food Storage Refrigeration Reduces growth of most organisms Freezing H2O in the form of ice – is unavailable for biological rxns
16 Hazards – Bacteria (common) Escherichia coliUndercooked meat or unwashed produce, not washing hands, consumption of infected sprouts, spinach, lettuce, salami, unpasteurized milk or juice, drinking untreated waterStaphylococciContamination from skin
17 Hazards – Bacteria (common) SalmonellaFound in eggs, beef, poultry, milk & vegetables, cross-contamination, not washing produce, inadequate cookingUsually from foods contaminated w/ animal fecesSevere infection possibly fatalClostridium perfringensImproper cooling = food temps. in the “Danger Zone”
18 Hazards – Bacteria (common) Bacillus cereusImproper cooling = food temps. in the “Danger Zone”Clostridium botulinumImproperly canned foodsBacteria produce a nerve toxinSpores have been found in honey DON’T feed honey to children <1 year old
19 Hazards – Viruses (common) NorovirusPoor hygiene = Fecal to oral contaminantA very hardy virus – hard to disinfect surfacesFamous for cruise-ship epidemics
20 Symptoms of F.B.I. Gastroenteritis (GI) = the “stomach flu” NauseaDiarrhea – almost always a symptom of any F.B.I.Abdominal crampsSudden onset of vomitingFeverDizziness, headachesDouble or blurred visionDifficulty swallowingDry mouthDroopy eyelidsMuscle weakness
21 10 Food-Handling Tips to Prevent F.B.I. Don’t buy cans or glass jars with dents, cracks or bulging lids.Never eat raw meat, poultry, seafood or eggs.Cook raw meat, poultry, seafood or eggs thoroughly to kill any bacteria present. Thoroughly reheat leftovers.Promptly refrigerate cooked meat and poultry in small shallow containers. Remove stuffing from chicken and turkey and refrigerate separately.Refrigerate perishable food as soon as you get home from the market.
22 10 Food-Handling Tips to Prevent F.B.I. 6. Store canned goods in a cool, dry place for use within a year. Never put them above the oven or in a damp area.7. Don’t thaw food on the counter; bacteria grow quickly at room temperature. Thaw food in the refrigerator or in the microwave just before cooking.8. Keep work areas clean. Wash hands, utensils and cutting boards in hot soapy water before preparing food and after handling raw meat or poultry.9. Use a plastic or other nonporous cutting board.10. Keep pets away from the food, cooking and eating surfaces, and equipment.
23 Don’t Take Chances WHEN IN DOUBT, THROW IT OUT!! If you suspect there’s a problem, throw the food out.WHEN IN DOUBT, THROW IT OUT!!