Contents Viruses Viruses Computer Worms Computer Worms Trojans Trojans Spyware Spyware Adware Adware Spam Spam Hoaxes and Scams Hoaxes and Scams Phishing Phishing Pharming Pharming E-mail spoofing E-mail spoofing Guidelines using the Internet and e-mail with courtesy and safety Guidelines using the Internet and e-mail with courtesy and safety General guidelines General guidelines Safety when interacting with others online Safety when interacting with others online Glossary Glossary
A computer virus is software that is written to disrupt the normal functioning of a computer. It is loaded secretly on the computer without the user’s knowledge or consent Designed to create and exploit security loopholes in systems in order to steal data. Viruses
How does a virus spread? Infected attachments - e-mail Infected download files -Internet Infected files - Portable media
Viruses How do I know whether I have a virus? Files suddenly start disappearing. Programs stop working properly. The computer slows down dramatically. Error messages that you have not seen before start appearing. Free space on the computer suddenly gets greatly reduced. Your anti-virus software reports the threat or presence of a virus. The computer no longer boots up
Viruses Virus prevention Anti-virus software warn you of the presence of a virus or any suspicious activity on your computer automatically delete any virus it detects quarantines a virus.
Viruses Virus prevention Prevent viruses by: making sure you have an anti-virus software package installed. keeping your virus definitions (signatures) regularly updated as new viruses come out every day. setting your anti-virus program to update automatically when you are connected to the Internet. scanning files stored on portable media such as flash drives before using them.
Prevent viruses by: scanning e-mail attachments before opening them. setting your anti-virus software to scan incoming and outgoing e-mail. not opening e-mail or run programs from people you do not know. avoid pirated software. disabling the autorun feature for flash drives. Viruses Virus prevention
Computer Worms A computer worm is malware that is able to distribute itself over a network, normally via e-mail, without a person having run an infected program. It is able to reproduce itself many times and so your computer could send out hundreds of these worms with devastating effect This can cause your computer to run very slowly and possibly even crash
Trojans A Trojan is a destructive program disguised as a useful application. This program could delete files on your computer or even scan your computer for personal information and send it off to the person who created it.
Spyware Spyware is software that tries to monitor and track the way you use your computer. It is installed on a user’s computer without user’s knowledge. Ensure that you have anti-spyware software installed Anti-spyware needs to be updated Ignore pop-up windows.
Spyware Signs that a computer could be infected by spyware Reported by anti-spyware software. Internet activity not initiated by the user. Changes are made to Internet settings, not by the user. The computer slows down dramatically. The user is redirected to different pages when trying to go to specific pages on the Web. Many pop-up windows appear.
Adware Adware is software that downloads and bombards you with adverts that pop-up whenever you are connected to the Internet.. Block pop-ups
Spam Spam is an e-mail being sent to you in the form of advertising and products that you did not request.
Prevention tips for spam Many service providers filter out as much of the spam as possible. Be careful of who you give your personal details and e-mail address to. Investigate the capabilities of your e-mail program. anti-spam software Spam
Hoaxes and Scams An Internet hoax is an e-mail message or article intended to deceive or defraud others.
How to protect yourself from these scams Never accept information at face value. Always check the source of the information Hoax is often the basis of an urban legend Delete it and do not forward it Virus hoaxes encourage you to delete files that may actually be crucial to your computer functioning correctly. Hoaxes and Scams
Phishing Phishing refers to attempts from people to con the user into giving out personal and confidential details such as PIN numbers and passwords by posing as a legitimate organisation, often a bank, usually via e-mail.
How to protect yourself from these scams Do not respond to requests via e-mail, from any source, to confirm details such as bank account numbers and especially PINs and passwords. Type in the URL of bank websites etc directly and do not click on a link in an e ‑ mail to go to these sites. A secure site: https:// and not http: Phishing
Pharming The user’s computer is infiltrated so that they are automatically redirected to another (fake) website even if they type in the correct URL (address) for that website
Prevention tips for pharming Ensure that you have up to date anti-spyware software installed. Many sites requiring secure information are now created so that browsers will warn you if you are re-directed to another site. Always pay attention to these warnings. Ensure that the site you are accessing is secure. Pharming
E-mail spoofing is the changing of an e-mail header so that the origin of the e-mail appears to be from a different source. It is used in spam and phishing e-mails to disguise the origin of the e-mail message. E-mail spoofing
Guidelines using the Internet and e- mail with courtesy and safety InternetEtiquette Netiquette
E-mail messages you type must be clear and contains no errors. Never type e-mail messages only in capital letters. Always ensure that any files that you attach to an e-mail message are free of viruses. Never be insulting in a message. If you wish to tease someone, use a smiley. Never pass on chain mail, hoaxes or spam. Make sure that any files you attach to a message are not too large. If you are forwarding an e-mail message to many people, rather add their addresses in the Bcc field.. Be careful of passing on too much personal information in an e-mail message. Guidelines using the Internet and e- mail with courtesy and safety Netiquette
General guidelines Keep your software up to date Keep your anti-virus software up to date Be careful when installing software from the Internet Do not click on links in pop-ups
Don’t open attachments or programs unless if you are sure of what they are Have good password policies Don’t give out personal information Stay informed Don’t be gullible General guidelines
Safety when interacting with others online The person with whom you are communicating may not be who they say they are Never be tempted to give out any personal details Do not make arrangements to meet someone you meet online Discontinue any uncomfortable ‘conversation’ immediately and tell your parents
Use a nickname or alias that does not show your gender or age. Never accept file transfers from strangers. Think before you post photos or text anywhere on the Internet Be aware that no page you create on social networking sites is private. Safety when interacting with others online
Don’t post embarrassing photos or comments on your ‘friends’ social networking pages Ignore friend requests from strangers. Be suspicious of someone who is just too ‘perfect’ Safety when interacting with others online