Lung Volumes The volume of air in the lungs can be measured with a method called spirometry. A spirometer measures the volumes of air inspired and expired and therefore changes that occur in lung volume. This practice is used clinically to determine lung volumes, capacities and flow rates which can assist in the diagnosis of respiratory diseases.
Lung Volumes Static Lung Volume: measures the dimensional component of air movement for the pulmonary tract. Dynamic Lung Volume: measures the power component of the pulmonary performance during different stages of the ventilatory excursion. (Look at volume of air moved and the speed of the movement) FEV: Forced Expiratory Volume FVC: Forced Vital Capacity
At Rest: All Participants 4 Stations in 4 groups: - Measuring height - Measuring Vital Capacity 3 times then find average - Measure Breathing Rate, breaths per minute - Measure FEV: Forced Expiratory Volume Record your results.
Clinical significance of Spirometry Obstructive Lung Disorders These are lung diseases that cause an obstruction such as a narrowing or blockage of the flow of air through the airways and out of the lungs. This results in a decrease in the amount of exhaled air flow. Examples of Obstructive Lung Disorders are Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), emphysema, asthma, bronchietasis
Clinical significance of Spirometry Restrictive Lung Disorders This type of lung disease causes one or more of the following to occur: - The loss of lung tissue - A decrease in the lungs ability to expand - A decrease in the lungs ability to transfer oxygen or carbon dioxide with the blood This results in a reduction in the amount of air that can be inhaled. Examples of Restrictive Lung Disorders are Pulmonary fibrosis, lung cancer and pneumonia
How to measure Vital Capacity- using spirometer- breathing all in then all out. 3x attempts and record average on the table. Tidal Volume- using spirometer- regular breathing, in and out. Breathing rate- number of breaths per minute. Dynamic Lung Volume (FEV/VC ratio) - using PIKO- 6. Breathe in deeply, breathe out hard and fast, keep exhaling for 6 seconds.
Spirometer Set mouthpiece to nozzle. Hold Spirometer by one hand and confirm that indicator points at zero, adjust indicator if not pointed at zero by moving upper outer ring. Inhale deeply stretching body upward. When lungs are full, set mouthpiece between lips. (make sure the Spirometer is horizontal and holes are not covered) Read measurement on indicator and record. (repeat three times and use average for VC)
PIKO-6 Attach mouthpiece, press the operate button to turn on. While standing up, hold the PIKO-6 in your right hand with the display pointing up. (make sure the holes are not covered) Bring the PIKO-6 close to your mouth and press the operate button. When first beep is heard inhale as much as you can. When the second beep is heard, insert the valve into your mouth and blow as hard as you can until the next beep. (approximately 6 seconds) Make sure the PIKO-6 is still kept horizontal, test results will be shown and FEV1 will also be shown. A “!” symbol may show next to the reading if a cough was detected, if the effort was too short, had a slow start or if the measured was unnaturally low or high for the reference. n
Procedure: 4 Participants Everyone will be participating in activity 4 groups: pick a member from your group whose results will be recorded (2 males and 2 females) 5 minutes of exercise - skipping - step ups - running - star jumps - agility course Record results for participant at minute intervals - Vital Capacity – 1 person - Breathing Rate – 1person - Tidal Volume (start and conclusion of exercise) – 1 person - FEV1/VC (start and conclusion of exercise) – 1 person - Recorder – 1 person
Definitions of lung volumes Lung VolumeDefinitions Tidal Volume (TV)The amount of air inspired or expired during a normal breath. Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV) The maximal volume of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal inspiration. Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) The maximal volume of air that can be forcefully expelled from the lungs after normal expiration. Residual Volume (RV)The amount of air that cannot be exhaled from the lungs, the remaining air after a forceful breath. Vital Capacity (VC)The maximal volume of air expelled from the lungs after maximal inhalation. Inspiratory Capacity (IC)After a normal expiration, the amount of air that the lungs are able to hold. (ie inspiratory reserve + tidal volume) Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) After a normal quiet expiration, the amount of air that is remaining in the lungs. (ie expiratory reserve volume + residual volume) Total Lung Volume (TLV)The addition of Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV), Tidal Volume (TV), Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) and Residual Volume (RV).
COPD Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) It is a lung disease of the lungs which indicates that they are damaged, making it hard to breathe. The airways are partly obstructed, making it difficult to get air in and out. COPD categories: – MILD COPD: 60-80% – MODERATE COPD: 40-59% – SEVERE COPD: below 40%
Questions What factors determine the lung volumes of individuals? Did either of the lung volume measurements change after acute exercise? How does this occur and why? What is asthma? What occurs during an “asthma attack”? What is exercise induced asthma? How does it differ from regular asthma? What are the sort of things that would be part of an asthma treatment plan? What asthmatic considerations are there for: – The classroom – Coaching
References Text Book: Physiology of Sport and Exercise National Heart Lung and Blood Institute: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health National Asthma Council Australia: http://www.nationalasthma.org.au http://www.nationalasthma.org.au About.com: http://lungdiseases.about.com/