Presentation on theme: "Respiratory Function, Breathing, Respiration"— Presentation transcript:
1 Respiratory Function, Breathing, Respiration BI 233Exercise 40
2 IntroductionPulmonary Ventilation is the movement of air into and out of the lungs and the exchange of gases across the respiratory membraneThe ventilation rate is the number of breaths per minuteThe pulmonary volume is the amount of air inhaled and exhaled with each breath
3 Clinical Application Adequate pulmonary ventilation is critical Reduction in pulmonary ventilation can cause increased C02 (hypercapnia) producing acidosisIncreased pulmonary ventilation can lead to a reduction in C02 (hypocapnia) producing alkalosis.Changes in C02 concentrations can alter breathing rates
4 Mechanics of Breathing Air moves from regions of higher pressure to regions of lower pressure.The lungs fill with air or deflate due to changes in air pressure.During inspiration the diaphragm contracts (with external intercostals) increasing the volume in thoracic cavity causing a decrease in pressure in the lungs which causes air to move into the lungs.When the diaphragm relaxes the size of thoracic cavity decreases causing increase in pressure and therefore causing expiration.
5 Measurement of Relaxed Breathing Rate Calculate your lab partner’s relaxed breathing rateHave partner read lab exercise while you count the number of breaths for 2 minutes.Divide by 2Record your resultsDo this again but have lab partner do strenuous exercise for 2 minutes and then count the number of breaths.
6 Pulmonary VolumesPulmonary volumes are the amount of air that flows into or out of the lungs during a particular event.Tidal Volume(TV): amount of air inhaled or exhaled with each breath under resting conditions ( ml)*The numbers given for volumes and capacities are averages and vary greatly between individuals
7 Pulmonary VolumesInspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV): Amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal tidal volume inhalation (3100ml)Expiratory reserve volume (ERV): amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after a normal tidal volume exhalation (1200ml)Residual Volume: Air left in lungs (1000ml)
8 Capacities Lung capacities are calculated by summation of volumes Vital Capacity (VC): Maximum amount of air that can be exhaled after a maximal inspiration (4800ml)Calculate your volumes and capacities including the percent of expected VC
9 Other Exercises Calculate your minute ventilation Do flow and resistance exercise and be able to describe the relationship between these.Listen to your lab partners respiratory sounds with the stethoscope
10 Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation CPR: typically used for people suffering from a heart attack (myocardial infarct), drug overdoses, drowning or trauma and obstruction of airways. Uses chest compressions of 100 times per minute on the body of the sternum.
12 ExerciseAerobic exercises increase heart rate and breathing rates at moderate levels for extended periods of time.Anaerobic exercises result in the consumption of available oxygen faster than it can be supplied to the muscle tissue
13 Forced Expiratory Vital Capacity (FEV) Indications of health can be roughly correlated with the amount of air expelled from the lungs in 1 second.Expressed as a percent when compared to a person’s vital capacity.Should be approx 75%
14 Harvard Step TestWas developed to determine a person’s physical fitness.We do not have the steps recommended in lab manual but you can go outside and walk up and down stairs for 3-5 minutes.Subject then rests for 30 secondsThen partner takes pulses every 30 secondsCalculate PFI:
15 Body Mass Index BMI is a general guide to fitness BMI= Weight in pounds/(height in inches)2OrBMI= Mass(kg)/ Height (M)2
16 Waist/Hip RatioWHR: According to the American Heart Association, people who carry more weight in their waist region are more at risk for health problems.WHR= Circumference of waist/Circumference of hips