3 Electrical Potential Electricity has potential: This energy comes from the charge particle has due to its position in an electric field.Because like charges repel, it takes energy to push a charged particle closer to another particle with a like charge. That energy is stored as the electric potential energy. These particles can move and want to/will when it is free to move.
4 Electric CurrentElectrical devices need a steady flow of electricity. The steady flow of charged particles is called electrical current. The flow continues until the energy source is used up, or disconnected.Electrical Current is measured in Amperes
5 ConductorsAllow the easy flow of electricity, loosely bound electrons that are free to move from atom to atommetals like aluminum, gold, copper and silver are examples of good conductors.
6 InsulatorsInsulators – resists the flow of electrons making the object safe to handleplastic, rubber, glassKeep charges away from body
7 ResistorsResistors-allow electrons to flow but slow them down considerably. This allows the current to slow down.
8 electron movement in an insulator electron movement in a conductorLG: to understand the basics of current electricityCurrent Electricity: the controlled flow of electrons through a conductor
9 Voltage Voltage – causes current to flow through an electrical circuit Volt – unit of measure to measure this potentialA Voltage Source (battery or generator) is required to maintain the electrical potential in a circuit.
10 Electrical Resistance the opposition to the flow of electricity –measured in Ohms – symbol is the Greek letter Omega –Electricity will take the path of least resistanceEx: Lightning RodThe greater the resistance, the less current there is for a given voltage.a. Longer wires have greater resistance than short wiresb. Thin wires have more resistance than thick wirec. High conductors have less resistance than insulators
11 SuperconductorsThere are some materials that have practically no resistance at extremely low temperatures. These are called Superconductors. Superconductors have many uses including use in power lines to increase efficiency as well as in computers to improve speed.
12 GroundingAs discussed charges/electricity likes to move through lines with lower resistance. Because of this we have developed a procedure known as grounding. Grounding means providing a harmless, low-resistance path-a ground- for electricity to flow.This is used to protect buildings from damage from lightning strikes.A “Lighting Rod” moves lighting strikes into the ground where the charge is absorbed.
14 What is ohms law?Ohm’s Law explains the relationship between voltage (V or E), current (I) and resistance (R)Used by electricians, automotive technicians, stereo installers
15 VOLTAGE (V)It is the push or pressure behind current flow through a circuit, and is measured in (V) volts.
16 CURRENTCurrent refers to the quantity/volume of electrical flow. Measured in Amps (A)
17 RESISTANCE Resistance to the flow of the current. Measured in Ohms
18 General Rule. 1. Assuming the resistance does not change: As voltage increases, current increases.as voltage decreases, current decreases.2. Assuming the voltage does not change:As resistance increases, current decreases.As resistance decreases, current increases.
19 Chapter 5 QuestionsWhat is the difference between resistance and insulation?Describe some of the disadvantages of solar cells listed from your book.How can a lightning rod protect a building from fire? Describe why lightning strikes it rather than something else.How do rechargeable batteries work differently from nonrechargeable ones?Describe how we can increase or decrease electrical potential energy.