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Unit III: Geography and Global Issues Population: Canada and the World.

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1 Unit III: Geography and Global Issues Population: Canada and the World

2 Introduction  Geography is….?  The study of the earth and its features and of the distribution of life on the earth, including human life and the effects of human activity.  Two main areas of Geography:  1) Physical Geography  Deals with natural features of the earth  2) Human Geography  Focuses on Human interaction with the environment, and the effects of human activity on the environment  We will focus, for now, on Human Geography

3 Vocabulary  Towards the end of the Chapter we will have a vocabulary quiz using the following list of words:  ALL bold words found in Chapter 13  There are a total of 25 words, don’t miss any!

4 Today’s Objectives  explain the significance of changes in world population with reference to  − population pyramids  − distribution  − density  − demographic transition models  interpret population pyramids and the demographic transition model

5 Human Population  Population studies are one of the primary aspects of Human Geography  How does the earths changing human population effect the environment ?  Is human population increasing or decreasing?  What parts of the world is human population increasing at the highest rate ?  What is China’s population?  What is Canada’s population?  Which country has the world’s largest population?  Which country will pass it by the year 2025?

6 Understanding Population Change  Two useful tools we have that can help us understand causes/reasons for population change are:  1) Population Pyramids  2) Demographic Transition Model

7 Population Pyramids  A graph that shows the age and sex structure of a population  4 main models or “shapes”: (Fig 13-11)  Early expanding  Expanding  Stable  Contracting  Each shape is typical for populations at different stages of population development  Examples in Fig. 13-10

8 Population Pyramids

9 China Population Pyramid  What pyramid model does China have? What do you notice about the male/female populations?

10 Canada Population Pyramid  What pyramid model does Canada have? What difference do you notice between Canada and China?

11 Homework  Make a list of the vocabulary words for chapter 13 and write the definitions  Complete the handout and population pyramid from the package I give you

12 Birth rates/death rates  crude birth rate :  Calculated by dividing the number of births in 1 year by the population, then x1000  Ex. ) If Canada had 100,000 births in one year, birth rate would be approx. (100,000/35,000,000) x 1000 = 2.85 birth rate  crude death rate :  Calculated by dividing the number of deaths in 1 year by the population, then x1000  Subtracting deaths from births gives the rate of natural population increase

13 Demographic Transition Model  The demographic transition model shows changes over a period of time in three elements:  Birth rates  Death rates  Trends in overall population numbers (natural population change)…does not include immigration/emigration  Assumes countries will pass through periods of industrialization on the way to reduced birth and death rates  Figure 13-8

14 Demographic Transition Model

15 Figure 13-8 and 13-9  Refer to your handout, and with a partner, try to answer the questions on Figure 13-9  We will look at this after 15 minutes  Homework: Answer questions 1-4, Figure 13-13, page 327, and activity questions 1- 4, page 328.

16 Analyzing Population Data Distribution, Density, and Dependency Ratios

17 Today’s Objectives  collect and analyse population data related to  distribution  density  dependency ratio  Describe possible responses to population growth

18 Age Structure of Population  The age structure of a population helps us understand the reasons for population change  Populations divided into:  Children up to age of 15  Working adults from age 16-64  Adults age 65 and older  This gives the dependency ratio, or proportion of the population being supported by the working age group

19 Age structure of Canada  Children and older people put pressure on society for:  Medical, education, housing, etc  1996: Canada population included:  21% children, 12% older adults, so…  Dependency ratio of 33%  This means one in every three people in Canada isn’t earning their own money

20 Age structure of other countries  Consider a country with a much higher birth rate than Canada. What would happen to the dependency ratio?  Much higher!  Bangladesh = 53% (47% children, 6% 65+)  What problems might arise in the future?

21 China’s Solution  How many of you have no brothers or sisters?  As you probably know, in the late 1970’s, the Chinese government instituted the family planning, or one-child policy  The hope was to eventually reduce the world’s largest population (Fig. 13-17, pg. 330)  Advantages?  More spending money, reduced pressure on environment, agriculture  Disadvantages?  Aging population, personal freedom compromised, female infanticide

22 China’s Aging Population

23 Where do 6 billion people live?  Population distribution refers to the way people are spaced over the Earth’s Surface  Ecumene is the part of the world that is permanently inhabited  Approx. 35% of the world’s land area is not suitable for inhabitation  About 50% of the world’s population lives on 5% of the land!  About 90% of the world’s population lives on 20% of the land!  67% live within 500 km of the ocean (Figure 13-20, pg. 332)

24 Population Distribution

25 Where are we all from?  Figure 13-21, pg. 333  If all the people on Earth could be shrunk to 100 people, there would be:  57 Asians  21 Europeans  14 North/South Americans  8 Africans  So where do you think most people on earth live?

26 Population Density  Population density describes the number of people in a given area (Fig. 13-22, pg. 333)  Crude densities are calculated by:  Population ÷ Area  Not necessarily useful, for example:  Canada has a much lower population density than China, but a far greater percentage of Canadians live in large cities where population density is much higher  Rural and Urban differ dramatically in most countries  Many reasons for different countries pop. densities

27 Population Density

28 Factors affecting population density  Physical factors and Human factors play a role in determining the density of world populations  Take a look at Figure 13-23 on page 334.

29 Some more vocabulary  Arable : land that can be used for farming  Carrying capacity : the number of people that can be sustained by an area of land  Nutritional density : measure of how much nutrition can be produced from an area of land  (area of good growing conditions have higher nutritional density than areas with poor growing conditions)

30 Assignment  Interpreting a diagram pg. 334, 1-2  Looking back, pg. 338, 5

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