Presentation on theme: "Putting it together: Photos, cutlines and pull quotes"— Presentation transcript:
1 Putting it together: Photos, cutlines and pull quotes
2 Terms to knowBefore we go too far, we need to master some terminology related to layout and design.What is a layout?What is a dummy?
3 Terms to know A layout is a plan for the use of space on a page. A dummy is a paper sheet used to represent that page.Both of these are key elements in a design.What is a design?
4 Terms to know Design is the overall look of a publication. It includes elements such as page size, color, type faces, spacing, art size and standards for columns.
5 Terms to knowThere are essentially three sizes for publications: broadsheet, tabloid and magazine.Broadsheet is the most common newspaper size in the United States. The O’Colly, the News-Press, the Tulsa World and The Oklahoman are all broadsheets.Broadsheet pages measure 13 inches by 21 inches. Pages are wide and deep.
6 Terms to knowTabloid design is the most common newspaper design overseas, and is seen in a number of places here. The Chicago Sun-Times and Christian Science Monitor are two examples.A tabloid page measures 10 inches by 15 inches.
7 Terms to knowMagazine design is what we are all familiar with from Newsweek, Time and dozens of other publications.The standard page is 7 inches by 10 inches.Magazine design is often done using a spread.Spreads contain facing pages. The gutter is the space between pages.
8 Terms to knowWhatever format they use, all design is based on columns.What are columns?Columns are rectangular blocks of space into which type and graphics are placed.Columns are numbered from left to right.Six columns is considered standard for a broadsheet layout, but that varies.
9 Working with art elements What do photographs, cutlines and pull quotes have in common?
10 Working with art elements Each is an art element used to fill the space on a page.Each should provide readers with entry points.
11 Working with art elements What do readers look at first? What do they comprehend?According to studies by the Poynter Institute, a color photo will draw the most attention on a page. It will serve as an entry point to the article and the page.
12 Working with art elements Art elements need to meet three basic criteria:1. They should accurately represent the story.2. They should serve as a conduit; drawing readers into the story and providing additional information for the story.3. They should provide variety.
14 Working with pull quotes It is normally a direct quote taken from a story and presented on a page in an exaggerated form.A pull quote must come from the story it appears with.A pull quote must be contained within the story as well as in the display.
15 Working with pull quotes Do not use a pull quote from the lead paragraph.Avoid using a pull quote that serves as the story’s impact statement.Make it clear in the presentation who is stating the pull quote. Attribution, attribution, attribution.
16 Working with photos Photos provide a visual means of telling a story. Select photos that make a statement.Identify the center of interest in a photo.Delete those portions of the photo that are not relevant to the center of interest.
17 Working with photos Important items to keep in mind: First, make sure one image on a page is the dominant image.What is the dominant image?It’s the one larger than all the other images.There are various measurements for the dominant image. In the class and in most of the world the dominant image is 50 percent larger than the next largest art element.
18 Working with photos Next, try for variety. Photos should demonstrate different perspectives. They should differ in dimension, orientation and composition.As an example: A photo taken from the ceiling looking down at a basketball goal as a player dunks provides some variety.Using the same type of shot for every presentation, makes for a dull layout.
19 Working with photosFinally, be aware of how the photo is placed on a page.Know the other elements and don’t let them fight with one another.In particular, avoid raw wraps. A raw wrap, where copy does not a have a headline over it, should be used sparingly in a publication.Watch for other art elements on the page.
20 Working with photosTwo photos may be adjacent. Make sure their proximity doesn’t create problems within a page.If the two photos clash, you have a problem.Also, be aware of the direction subjects face in a photo.Try to have images that look into a story.Avoid images that look off the page or into another story.
21 Working with photos Always be willing to crop photos. Always be willing to resize photos.Photos can be incredibly flexible. They are a page designer’s best friend. They do not, however, arrive in a perfect form for each application.In the same way that copy needs a copy editor, photos need photo editing.
22 Working with photos Be careful when editing photos. There are ethical considerations.There are legal considerations.There are matters of style and policy to consider.Don’t forget any of these.
23 Working with captionsCaptions, or cutlines, are art elements that describe other art elements.Captions are similar to headlines for photos.Captions, like headlines, need to summarize the action in a few words.They also need to be written in active voice.Captions, however, must follow AP style for body text. This means watch out for numerals, punctuation and grammar.
24 Working with captionsCaptions can put more pressure on editors and create the possibility for more errors.They are often handled by fewer people.They are seen by fewer sets of eyes.To cut down on the number of errors, always check the caption and the photo it is running with. Make sure the correct caption runs with the correct photo.
25 Working with captionsThere are two rules to always apply to photos and several additional steps to consider.First, make sure that the caption and the action in the photo match. Watch out for a cropped photos that deletes a detail.Second, make sure that the photo on the page is the same one as called for in the design.
26 Working with captionsFollow the two rules and everything gets easier. Here are some additional steps.Make sure there is a caption for everything and everything has its caption. This includes photos and graphics.The caption should describe the picture. It must be complete.Everyone appearing prominently should be identified.
27 Working with captionsUse present tense. Kansas City’s Angel Berroa throws out White Sox catcher Chris Drummond at second base.If a date must be specified put it in the second sentence of a caption. Note: AP uses only two sentence for a caption. We will do the same.Identification normally starts at the left of the photo.
28 Working with captions Avoid mixing present and past tense. Write what you know. A demonstrator with an open mouth is not necessarily screaming.Don’t insult readers’ intelligence. If it is clear that a bartender is drawing a beer, don’t say in the caption that the subject is drawing a beer.Avoid words like shown above, pictured and poses.
29 Working with captionsExplain strange items that appear in a photo. If the subject is using a mass spectrometer in the photo and the device is pertinent, explain what it does.Avoid posed subjects.Avoid photos that you have seen a dozen times before, such as handing over an oversized check, groundbreaking ceremonies and the like.
30 Working with captions Avoid widows. Widows are the last word or words on a line. They look like headlines that were too short for the count.Either delete a word or words from the previous line or use the remaining space to say more about the photo or graphic.Finally, don’t forget to credit the photographer.