Presentation on theme: "HEALTH EDUCATION & Promotion Concepts"— Presentation transcript:
1 HEALTH EDUCATION & Promotion Concepts Prof. AWATIF ALAM & Prof. ASHRY GADDepartment of Family & Community MedicineKSU
2 Definition:“Health education is the process by which individuals and group of people learn to “:Promote, Maintain, Restore healthAddress risks, prevent disease/injury“Education for health begins with people as they are, with whatever interests they may have in improving their living conditions”.
3 DEFINITIONS OF HEALTH PROMOTION A planned combination of educational, political, regulatory, and organizational supports for actions and conditions of living conducive to the health of individuals, groups, or communities.Keywords- planned, different supports, healthy environmentGreen & Kreuter, 1999
4 DEFINITIONS OF HEALTH PROMOTION The process of enabling people to increase control over and improve their health…A commitment to dealing with challenges of reducing inequities, extending the scope of prevention, and helping people to cope with their circumstances…Creating environments conducive to health, in which people are better able to take care of themselvesDifferent settings- school, workplace, etc
5 BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF HEALTH PROMOTION Enabling people to take control over, and responsibility for, their health as an important component of everyday life.Requiring the close cooperation of sectors beyond the health services.Combining diverse, but complimentary, methods or approaches.Encouraging effective and concrete public participation.Media, newspapers, for aParticipation from day 1
6 Health Promotion Action Means: Build Public Health PolicyCreate Supportive EnvironmentsStrengthen Community ActionsDevelop Personal SkillsRe-orient Health ServicesMoving into the future
7 THE TRIAD OF HEALTH PROMOTION HEALTH EDUCATIONHEALTH PROTECTIONDISEASE PREVENTIONDefineWhich is more difficult
8 The Health Promotion Triad Health EducationHealth ProtectionPrevention
10 The Phases of Prevention in relation to natural history of disease PrimaryPreventionSecondaryPreventionTertiaryPreventionCureChronicdiseaseHealthyindividualBiologicalonset ofdiseaseClinicalCourse ofdiseaseDisabilityDeathFunctionalStatusRiskFactorsAsymptomaticsignsSymptoms andsignsPredisposition/susceptibilityPreclinical/presymptomaticClinical/symptomaticOutcome- cure, permanent/temporary-partial disability/deathRehabilitationSupportImmunization Health EducationProphylaxisScreeningSurveillanceDiagnosisTreatmentComplianceAdherenceThe Phases of Prevention in relation tonatural history of disease
11 Health Promotion Context: Place of Health Education in Public Health
12 HEALTH PROMOTION MODELS THREE SPHERESHealth EducationPreventionHealth ProtectionSEVEN DOMAINSLifestylePreventive PoliciesPolicy MakerEducation5. Health Education6. Health Protection7. Policy Support
13 Health Promotion (Ottawa Charter) Process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health……. health promotion is not just the responsibility of health sector, but goes beyond healthy life styles to well beingHealth Promotion concept recognizes the role of socio-political environment, public policies, health system and access to care, physical environment, culture, and health related attitudes and behaviors towards health and diseases. Health Education targets health related beliefs, attitudes and behaviors of individuals and populations. Therefore, while Health Education plays an important role there is a need to understand that a larger role is played by national policies, social context, cultural values, health system access
14 Health Promotion – Framework Advocacy to make political, economic, social, environmental, cultural, behavioral & biological factors favorable to health.Enable people by ensuring equal opportunitiesassociated text refers to ‘opportunities for access to information, life skills, and making health choices (HEALTH EDUCATION contributes to achieving this goal)’ -- [and this enables person to take action]Mediate a coordinated action by government, health, social and economic sectors, NGOs, Industry, professional & social groups
15 Health Promotion Actions Healthy Public Policies -- for healthier goods & services, healthier environment, equal opportunitiesCreation of Supportive EnvironmentEnvironment - Social, PhysicalWork, Community, Society levelsStrengthening Community ActionsCommunity participation, empowerment, action. Health Education also helps in empowering people for effective participation and taking part in actions which make positive changes to environment, health care services, policies
16 Health Promotion Actions (contd.) Develop Personal SkillsBy education, information, trainingReorient Health ServicesHealth sector must move in a HP direction beyond clinicalRespect cultural needs
17 Targets of health education: definitions Health Behaviour: Activity undertaken for the purpose of prevention of diseases, or detecting these at an early stage, or managing them effectivelyBelief: A statement or body of statements held to be true by an individual or group.Attitude: Position, disposition, or manner with regard to a person or thing
18 AIMS OF HEALTH EDUCATION: 1. To develop a sense of responsibility for health conditions, as individuals, as members of families & communities.(Promotion ,prevention of disease & early diagnosis and management ). While, as mentioned previously, environment, policy, social context plays a major role towards shaping the health attitudes and behaviors, information, knowledge and skills at personal level are also important to adopt healthy behaviors2. To promote and wisely use the available health services.3. To be part of all education, and to continue throughout whole span of life.
19 Process of health education: Dissemination of scientific knowledgeabout how to promote and maintain health),lead to changes in the Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices (behavior) related to such changes.
20 Steps for adopting new ideas & practices : AWARENESS (Know about new ideas)INTEREST (Seeks more details )EVALUATION(Advantages versus disadvant.+ testing usefulness )TRIAL (Decision put into practice)ADOPTION (person feels new idea is good and adopts it)
21 Contents of Health Education RISK FACTORS: e.g. smoking, drugs, road traffic accident risksHEALTH ENHACING PRACTICES: e.g. exercise, nutritionOCCUPATIONAL FACTORS: Safety, HygieneINFECTION CONTROL: e.g. hand washingCHRONIC ILLNESS, MENTAL HELATH: Knowledge about risks, improvement actions such as promoting togethernessSEXUAL HEALTH i.e. information about STIHEALTH SERVICES: Information about access, Awareness about the need to use the health servicesSPECIAL GROUPS (food handlers, occupations, mothers, school health)
22 Principles of Health Education InterestParticipationMotivationComprehensionProceeding from the known to the unknownReinforcement through repetitionGood human relationsPeople, facts and media:“knowledgeable, attractive , palatable & acceptable “.
23 Principles of Health Education Learning by doing:“ If I hear, I forgetIf I see, I rememberIf I do, I know”.Motivation i.e. awakening the desire to know and learn:- Primary motives, e.g. inborn desires, hunger- Secondary motives, i.e. desires created by incentives such as praise, love, recognition, competition.
24 Health Education: Individuals AboutFor example, for Healthy behaviors (e.g. breast feeding), secondary preventionSettings where education is impartedHealth care settings, Home, Video/InternetApproaches to health education for individualsRisk assessments in various settingsInformation, contract, evaluation for behavior changeMethods for health education for individualsInformation provision in-person, print/electronic mediaIssuesHigh Cost, Focus on Disease rather than on health
25 Health Education: Groups AboutBehavior change, supportive environment, community action, access to careSettingsHealth care settings, community, workplaceApproachesKnowledge & skill developmentPeer learningTraining for behavior changeMethodsDidactic & experiential methodsIssuesDifficult to comprehend and manage group dynamics, difficult to achieve skills to facilitate groups
26 Communication in health education: Education is primarily a matter of communication, the components of which are:CHANNELS AUDIENCE MESSAGE COMMUNICATOR- Individual Conform with Educator- Media Group objectives.- 2 way Public understandable needs+ interestof audience- 1 way Public Acceptable ? Content ofmessage
27 Evaluation of health education programs: There should be continuous evaluation.Evaluation should not be left to the end but should be done from time to time for purpose of making modifications to achieve better results.
28 EVALUATION CYCLE:Describe problem Describe program State goals Determine neededinformationModify program Establish basis forproof of effectivenessAnalyze &compare Organize data Develop& test Determine dataresults base instruments collecting method