2 For Your QuizBe able to explain the safe driving strategies for expressway driving.Know the situations that require you to increase your following distance.Be able to explain why there are fewer collisions on expressways.Explain what you should do if you encounter a “wolf pack.”List and explain the common exiting problems.Define highway hypnosis.Define velocitation.
3 Key IdeaThis chapter discusses ways to manage risk when entering, driving on, and exiting multilane highways. Students also learn about problems and features specific to highways.
4 Why are expressways safer? Cross Traffic is EliminatedExpressways have medians/barriers between opposite lanes of trafficAccess is restricted to not allow slow moving vehicles/pedestriansWide shoulders provide good escape pathsSigns are designed to help drivers anticipate changes ahead of time
5 Classification of Highways ReviewWhat type of signs are these?What information do you get from these signs?There are three classifications of highways:InterstateUS HighwayState Highway
6 Interstate Highway System Controlled AccessVehicles can only enter or leave at designated interchanges.InterchangePlaces where drivers can cross over or under traffic as well as enter or leave the expressway.Non-controlled AccessThis roadway could have traffic lights, intersections, and driveways where traffic is able to enter or leave the expresswayExamples of Controlled access – toll roads and interstatesExamples of non-controlled access – any state highway
7 Freeway Interchanges Four Types of Interchanges: Cloverleaf Diamond TrumpetAll-DirectionalCloverleaf – Allows access in all four directions at the interchange.Diamond – Allows access usually in three of the four directions.Trumpet – Used where a highway forms a T-intersection with an expressway.All Directional – three or more expressways coming together.
8 Safe Driving Strategies Prepare yourself and your vehicleBuild experience graduallyConcentrate on the driving taskCooperate with other driversPrepare yourself and your vehicle – know route, exits, where you plan to stop. Have full tank of gas for long trips, map, emergency kit, cell phone, etc.Build experience gradually – choose a time with light traffic first, then gradually increase difficulty level.Concentrate on driving task – Do not take expressway driving for granted, may appear easy, but one mistake at high speeds can quickly become deadly.Cooperate w/others – Be a courteous driver, don’t challenge drivers demonstrating aggressive behaviors.
9 Entering Controlled-Access Highways Gap Size applies to this maneuverWhen entering a controlled-access highway:Make sure you are on an entrance ramp.There are 3 parts to an entrance ramp:Entrance rampAcceleration LaneMerging AreaShort video on merging
10 Entrance Problems Wrong Ramp Don’t back up! Go to next exit and fix it then.Ramp MeterRed and Green light used to help control the flow of traffic onto the expressway.Acceleration LaneAvoid coming to a stop if at all possible.Left-Entrance RampDangerous because you are merging with the faster traffic.
11 Steps for Entering an Expressway Check your front and rear zones.Accelerate in acceleration lane.Decide on gap.MIB and match speed.Merge, cancel signal, adjust speed.Following DistanceCheck front and rear zones. Don’t accelerate until you reach the acceleration lane and have selected a gap.Accelerate when you reach the acceleration lane.Decide where you will fit and accelerate so you can smoothly fit into that space.MIB and match speed to flow of traffic when you reach the merging area.Once on the highway, cancel signal and adjust your speed to the flow of traffic.Increase your following distance accordingly to at least 3 secs.Video shows how not to merge on the expressway.
12 Applying the IPDE Process IdentifyOpen and closed zoneLine of sight restrictionsOther usersTraffic signs and signalsRoadway Features and ConditionsPredictActions of OthersSpeedDirectionControlDecideChange/Maintain SpeedChange/Maintain SteeringCommunicate with OthersCombine ActionsExecuteUse smooth, deliberate actions to carry out your plan.Identify – Prevent yourself from getting trapped in and be aware of distracted drivers (increase following distance)Predict – search for slower moving traffic, drivers changing lanes, anticipate closed zones, conflicts near entrances and exitsDecide – remember last second decisions are more dangerousExecute – change lane position if necessary to increase space cushion and give escape route
13 Lane Choice Safer to drive on right and pass on left. Safest lane? Depends on situation but usually still the right laneApproaching entrances – move to center to avoid conflictsAvoid passing on the right whenever possibleReversible lanesHOT/HOV LanesSpeed limit and Common SpeedReserve center and left lanes for faster/passing traffic.Reversible Lanes – Traffic lanes where traffic can travel in either direction depending on certain conditions (usually rush hour traffic). Pay attention to signs and signals when thinking about using these lanes.HOT/HOV Lanes – Lanes designed for vehicles that have two or more occupants, some states have a toll/fee for using these lanes. HOT Lanes Are much like an IPASS lane (car has transponder in it), but they are separated by regular traffic with a barrier or median.Speed limit and Common Speed – Common speed allows you to blend better with traffic, but if it is above the speed limit resist speeding because you are breaking the law. Drivers who exceed the common speed generally weave in and out of traffic which increases the danger to other drivers.
14 Changing Lanes Avoid making lane changes too often. Avoid changing multiple lanes at one time.Avoid changing lanes when others are changing too.Avoid Multiple Lane Changes – Each lane should be a separate move and requires a separate signal.Watch for others changing lanes too!!!
15 Passing and Being Passed Pass on the left…it’s safer!!If being passed:Change lane position if necessary to increase spaceTo let them pass quickly reduce your speed slightly
16 Exiting Controlled-Access Highways Locate the proper exit:Deceleration LaneExit RampAdvisory Speed LimitIdentify type of rampDo Not Slow Down on the Expressway Itself!!!!Deceleration Lane – An added lane where it is safe to slow down without blocking the vehicles behind you.Exit Ramp – Ramp leading off the highway. Be aware of advisory speeds for ramps. Identify the type of ramp so you can slow down appropriately.
17 3 Common Exiting Problems Ramp OverflowCrossing PathsShort Deceleration LaneRamp Overflow – Exiting traffic backs up onto the expressway. Dangerous situation that can cause a collision if drivers are scanning ahead and identifying the problem.Crossing Paths – Exit ramp is just after and entrance ramp. Dangerous situation because traffic merging onto the expressway is accelerating while traffic exiting the expressway is decelerating. If exiting try to time so you fit in behind entering/accelerating traffic. Common on cloverleaf type interchanges.Short Deceleration Lane – Need to identify this so you can slow down more quickly.Judge the length of the laneIdentify the exit ramp speedCheck your speedCheck for following traffic
18 Highway Problems and Features DriversHighway HypnosisVelocitationDisabled VehiclesUse hazard lightsRaise hoodTie white cloth to antennaStand near the back of the car away from the roadHighway Hypnosis – Being lulled into an inattentive, drowsy state because of the length of the drive and the lack of change in the scenery.Velocitation – Unconsciously driving too fast as a result of an extended drive on an expressway. Especially dangerous as you are exiting; check your speedometer and the ramp speed.
19 Expressway Wolf-packs Vehicles bunching together on an expressway.Avoid to keep space cushion and reduce riskChange speed to avoid packsBecome a “loner” and drive in between packs is possible
20 Roadways and Toll Plazas BeltwaySpurManual LaneAutomatic LaneIPASS LaneBeltway – loop around a city (3 digit number starting with an even number)Spur – Branch going into a city (3 digit number starting with an odd number)Manual Lane – where you need to make changeAutomatic Lane – have exact changeIPASS Lane – Transponder in car that automatically deducts the toll charge. Why does the state charge you more to pay cash?
21 For Your QuizBe able to explain the safe driving strategies for expressway driving.Know the situations that require you to increase your following distance.Be able to explain why there are fewer collisions on expressways.Explain what you should do if you encounter a “wolf pack.”List and explain the common exiting problems.Define highway hypnosis.Define velocitation.