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Ch. 16 Driving on Highways.

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1 Ch. 16 Driving on Highways

2 For Your Quiz Be able to explain the safe driving strategies for expressway driving. Know the situations that require you to increase your following distance. Be able to explain why there are fewer collisions on expressways. Explain what you should do if you encounter a “wolf pack.” List and explain the common exiting problems. Define highway hypnosis. Define velocitation.

3 Key Idea This chapter discusses ways to manage risk when entering, driving on, and exiting multilane highways. Students also learn about problems and features specific to highways.

4 Why are expressways safer?
Cross Traffic is Eliminated Expressways have medians/barriers between opposite lanes of traffic Access is restricted to not allow slow moving vehicles/pedestrians Wide shoulders provide good escape paths Signs are designed to help drivers anticipate changes ahead of time

5 Classification of Highways
Review What type of signs are these? What information do you get from these signs? There are three classifications of highways: Interstate US Highway State Highway

6 Interstate Highway System
Controlled Access Vehicles can only enter or leave at designated interchanges. Interchange Places where drivers can cross over or under traffic as well as enter or leave the expressway. Non-controlled Access This roadway could have traffic lights, intersections, and driveways where traffic is able to enter or leave the expressway Examples of Controlled access – toll roads and interstates Examples of non-controlled access – any state highway

7 Freeway Interchanges Four Types of Interchanges: Cloverleaf Diamond
Trumpet All-Directional Cloverleaf – Allows access in all four directions at the interchange. Diamond – Allows access usually in three of the four directions. Trumpet – Used where a highway forms a T-intersection with an expressway. All Directional – three or more expressways coming together.

8 Safe Driving Strategies
Prepare yourself and your vehicle Build experience gradually Concentrate on the driving task Cooperate with other drivers Prepare yourself and your vehicle – know route, exits, where you plan to stop. Have full tank of gas for long trips, map, emergency kit, cell phone, etc. Build experience gradually – choose a time with light traffic first, then gradually increase difficulty level. Concentrate on driving task – Do not take expressway driving for granted, may appear easy, but one mistake at high speeds can quickly become deadly. Cooperate w/others – Be a courteous driver, don’t challenge drivers demonstrating aggressive behaviors.

9 Entering Controlled-Access Highways
Gap Size applies to this maneuver When entering a controlled-access highway: Make sure you are on an entrance ramp. There are 3 parts to an entrance ramp: Entrance ramp Acceleration Lane Merging Area Short video on merging

10 Entrance Problems Wrong Ramp
Don’t back up! Go to next exit and fix it then. Ramp Meter Red and Green light used to help control the flow of traffic onto the expressway. Acceleration Lane Avoid coming to a stop if at all possible. Left-Entrance Ramp Dangerous because you are merging with the faster traffic.

11 Steps for Entering an Expressway
Check your front and rear zones. Accelerate in acceleration lane. Decide on gap. MIB and match speed. Merge, cancel signal, adjust speed. Following Distance Check front and rear zones. Don’t accelerate until you reach the acceleration lane and have selected a gap. Accelerate when you reach the acceleration lane. Decide where you will fit and accelerate so you can smoothly fit into that space. MIB and match speed to flow of traffic when you reach the merging area. Once on the highway, cancel signal and adjust your speed to the flow of traffic. Increase your following distance accordingly to at least 3 secs. Video shows how not to merge on the expressway.

12 Applying the IPDE Process
Identify Open and closed zone Line of sight restrictions Other users Traffic signs and signals Roadway Features and Conditions Predict Actions of Others Speed Direction Control Decide Change/Maintain Speed Change/Maintain Steering Communicate with Others Combine Actions Execute Use smooth, deliberate actions to carry out your plan. Identify – Prevent yourself from getting trapped in and be aware of distracted drivers (increase following distance) Predict – search for slower moving traffic, drivers changing lanes, anticipate closed zones, conflicts near entrances and exits Decide – remember last second decisions are more dangerous Execute – change lane position if necessary to increase space cushion and give escape route

13 Lane Choice Safer to drive on right and pass on left. Safest lane?
Depends on situation but usually still the right lane Approaching entrances – move to center to avoid conflicts Avoid passing on the right whenever possible Reversible lanes HOT/HOV Lanes Speed limit and Common Speed Reserve center and left lanes for faster/passing traffic. Reversible Lanes – Traffic lanes where traffic can travel in either direction depending on certain conditions (usually rush hour traffic). Pay attention to signs and signals when thinking about using these lanes. HOT/HOV Lanes – Lanes designed for vehicles that have two or more occupants, some states have a toll/fee for using these lanes. HOT Lanes Are much like an IPASS lane (car has transponder in it), but they are separated by regular traffic with a barrier or median. Speed limit and Common Speed – Common speed allows you to blend better with traffic, but if it is above the speed limit resist speeding because you are breaking the law. Drivers who exceed the common speed generally weave in and out of traffic which increases the danger to other drivers.

14 Changing Lanes Avoid making lane changes too often.
Avoid changing multiple lanes at one time. Avoid changing lanes when others are changing too. Avoid Multiple Lane Changes – Each lane should be a separate move and requires a separate signal. Watch for others changing lanes too!!!

15 Passing and Being Passed
Pass on the left…it’s safer!! If being passed: Change lane position if necessary to increase space To let them pass quickly reduce your speed slightly

16 Exiting Controlled-Access Highways
Locate the proper exit: Deceleration Lane Exit Ramp Advisory Speed Limit Identify type of ramp Do Not Slow Down on the Expressway Itself!!!! Deceleration Lane – An added lane where it is safe to slow down without blocking the vehicles behind you. Exit Ramp – Ramp leading off the highway. Be aware of advisory speeds for ramps. Identify the type of ramp so you can slow down appropriately.

17 3 Common Exiting Problems
Ramp Overflow Crossing Paths Short Deceleration Lane Ramp Overflow – Exiting traffic backs up onto the expressway. Dangerous situation that can cause a collision if drivers are scanning ahead and identifying the problem. Crossing Paths – Exit ramp is just after and entrance ramp. Dangerous situation because traffic merging onto the expressway is accelerating while traffic exiting the expressway is decelerating. If exiting try to time so you fit in behind entering/accelerating traffic. Common on cloverleaf type interchanges. Short Deceleration Lane – Need to identify this so you can slow down more quickly. Judge the length of the lane Identify the exit ramp speed Check your speed Check for following traffic

18 Highway Problems and Features
Drivers Highway Hypnosis Velocitation Disabled Vehicles Use hazard lights Raise hood Tie white cloth to antenna Stand near the back of the car away from the road Highway Hypnosis – Being lulled into an inattentive, drowsy state because of the length of the drive and the lack of change in the scenery. Velocitation – Unconsciously driving too fast as a result of an extended drive on an expressway. Especially dangerous as you are exiting; check your speedometer and the ramp speed.

19 Expressway Wolf-packs
Vehicles bunching together on an expressway. Avoid to keep space cushion and reduce risk Change speed to avoid packs Become a “loner” and drive in between packs is possible

20 Roadways and Toll Plazas
Beltway Spur Manual Lane Automatic Lane IPASS Lane Beltway – loop around a city (3 digit number starting with an even number) Spur – Branch going into a city (3 digit number starting with an odd number) Manual Lane – where you need to make change Automatic Lane – have exact change IPASS Lane – Transponder in car that automatically deducts the toll charge. Why does the state charge you more to pay cash?

21 For Your Quiz Be able to explain the safe driving strategies for expressway driving. Know the situations that require you to increase your following distance. Be able to explain why there are fewer collisions on expressways. Explain what you should do if you encounter a “wolf pack.” List and explain the common exiting problems. Define highway hypnosis. Define velocitation.

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