Presentation on theme: "AP Human Geography Industry - Chapter 11 APHG Spring 2014"— Presentation transcript:
1 AP Human Geography Industry - Chapter 11 APHG Spring 2014 Ironbridge, EnglandWorld’s first bridge made entirely of cast iron, constructed in late 1700s.APHGSpring 2014llhammon Spring 2014
2 Key Issues Where is industry distributed? Why are situation factors important?Why are site factors important?Why are location factors changing?
3 Where is Industry Distributed? Origin of industryFrom cottage industries to the Industrial Revolution (series of events)Impact of the Industrial Revolution especially great on iron, coal, transportation, textiles, chemicals, and food processingMost significant impact of the IR was to promote concentration rather than dispersion of industry across the landscape
4 Diffusion of the Industrial Revolution When, Where, Why:Island of Great Britain in mid-to late 1700sWhy?Flow of capitalSecond agricultural revolutionMercantilism and cottage industriesResources: coal, iron ore, and water powerDiffusion of railways
5 Industrial Revolution Hearths The Industrial Revolution originated in areas of northern England. Factories often clustered near coalfields.
6 Flow of Capital Into Europe , 1775 Needed flow of capital in order to fuel the Industrial Revolution
7 Textiles Production:Liverpool and ManchesterIron Production:BirminghamCoal Mining:Newcastle
8 Diffusion to Mainland Europe In early 1800s, innovations diffused into mainland Europe.Location criteria:proximity to coal fields;Connection via water to a portFlow of capitalLater DiffusionIn late 1800s, innovations diffused to some regions without coal.Location criteria:Access to railroadFlow of capital
10 The Paris Basin is the Industrial base of France The Paris Basin is the Industrial base of France. Rouen (pictured here) is at the head of navigation point on the Seine River.
11 Where is Industry Distributed? Industrial regionsEuropeEmerged in late nineteenth and early twentieth centuriesWestern Europe, Central Europe, Russia (Europe/Asia)North AmericaIndustry arrived later but spread faster than in EuropeEast Asia
12 Industrial RegionsThe world’s major manufacturing regions are found in North America, Europe, and East Asia. Other manufacturing centers are also found elsewhere.
17 How do Location Theories explain Industrial Location?
18 Location TheoryLocation Theory – predicting where business will or should be located.Considerations:Variable costsFriction of distance
19 Location Models Weber’s Model Manufacturing plants will locate where costs are the least (least cost theory)Theory:Least Cost TheoryCosts: Transportation, Labor, AgglomerationHotelling’s ModelLocation of an industry cannot be understood without reference to other industries of the same kind.Theory:Locational interdependenceLosch’s ModelManufacturing plants choose locations where they can maximize profit.Theory:Zone of Profitability
20 Losch’s Model - Zone of Profitability Zones of distance decay – sales will be unprofitable.
21 Why Are Situation Factors Important? Proximity to inputsLocation near marketsTransport choicesTypes of IndustriesBulk-reducing industriesExamples:CopperSteelOthers?Integrated steel mills in the U.S. are clustered near thesouthern Great Lakes, which helped minimize transportcosts of heavy raw materials.
22 Proximity to markets Bulk-gaining industries Examples: Fabricated metalsBeverage productionSingle-market manufacturersPerishable productsU.S.-owned parts plants are clustered near the main final assembly plants. Foreign-owned plants tend to be located further south, where labor unions are weaker.
23 Copper Industry in North America Copper mining, concentration, smelting, and refining are examples of bulk-reducing industries. Many are located near the copper mines in Arizona
24 Location of Beer Breweries Beer brewing is a bulk-gaining industry that needs to be located nearconsumers. Breweries of the two largest brewers are located near majorpopulation centers.
25 Why Are Situation Factors Important? Ship, rail, truck, or air?The farther something is transported, the lower the cost per km/mileCost decreases at different rates for each of the four modesTruck = most often for short-distance travelTrain = used to ship longer distances (1 day +)Ship = slow, but very low cost per km/mileAir = most expensive, but very fast
26 Why Are Site Factors Important? LaborThe most important site factorLabor-intensive industriesExamples: textilesTextile and apparel spinningTextile and apparel weavingTextile and apparel assembly
27 Cotton Yarn Production Production of cotton yarn from fiber is clustered in major cotton growing countries, including the U.S., China, India, Pakistan, and Russia.
28 Woven Cotton Fabric Production Production of woven cotton fabric is labor intensive and is likely to be located in LDCs. China and India account for over 75% of world production.
29 Production of Women’s Blouses Sewing cotton fabric into women’s blouses is more likely to belocated near customers in MDCs, but much production nowoccurs in LDCs.
30 Why Are Site Factors Important? LandRural sitesEnvironmental factorsCapital $$$
31 Site Selection for Saturn GM considered a varietyof economic andgeographic factorswhen it searched for asite for producing thenew Saturn in 1985.The plant waseventually located inSpring Hill, TN.
32 Why Are Location Factors Changing? Attraction of new industrial regionsChanging industrial distribution within MDCsInterregional shift within the United StatesRight-to-work lawsTextile productionInterregional shifts in EuropeConvergence shiftsCompetitive and employment regions
34 Manufacturers of Men’s and Women’s Socks and Hosiery Hosiery manufacturersusually locate near alow-cost labor force,such as found in thesoutheastern U.S.
35 European Union Structural Funds •Manufacturing has diffused from traditional industrial centers in NW Europe toward Southern and Eastern Europe.• European government policies have encouraged this industrial relocation.• The EU provides assistance to what it calls convergence regions and competitive and employment regions.Central Europe offers manufacturers an attractive combination of two important site and situation factors – labor and market proximity.EU Structural Funds. The EU provides subsidiesin regions with economic difficulties because of declining industries, as well as to regions thathave lower-than-average incomes.
36 Why Are Location Factors Changing? Attraction of new industrial regionsInternational shifts in industryEast Asia – one the of the world’s three major industrial regions. Rapid industrial growth; In addition to China and Japan, also includes S. Korea (world’s leading producer of lrg container ships (international trade) Leading producer of steel and fabricated metal products.South Asia – Led by India, one of the fastest-growing economies among lrg countries. Textiles dominant industrial sector; motor vehicle production is growing; important ctr for business services.Latin America – nearest low-wage region to the US. Maquiladora plants located in northern Mexico - shipping is lower to US from Mexico than any other LDC. Brazil leading industrial country in Latin America; industries clustered around two large cities in the SE part of Brazil.
37 Newly Industrialized•China – major industrial growth after 1950• Industrialization in the 1960s was state-planned: (Why?)Focused on: Northeast DistrictShanghai and Chang District• Today, industrialization is spurred by companies that move productions (not the whole company) to take advantage of Chinese labor and special economic zones (SEZs)BRICs – Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa
38 As China’s economy continues to grow, old neighborhoods (right) are destroyed to make room for new buildings (below).Beijing, China
39 Changing distributions Modern Production Outsourcing - moving individual steps in the production process (of a good or a service) to a supplier, who focuses their production and offers a cost savings.Offshore – Outsourced work that is located outside of the country.
40 World Steel Production Since the 1980s, all the world’s increase in steel production has been in LDCs.China has had the greatest increase.
41 Global ProductionSteel production has generally declined in MDCs and increased in LDCs, especially in China, India, Brazil, and South Korea
42 Apparel Production and Jobs in the U S Apparel production and jobs in the US. The number of jobs in the apparel industry has declined sharply in the US since the 1990s. Not by coincidence, the % of everyday clothing accounted for by domestic production has decreased sharply, replaced with imports.
43 Why Are Location Factors Changing? Renewed attraction of traditional industrial regionsProximity to skilled laborFordist, or mass productionPost-Fordist, or lean productionJust-in-time delivery
44 Post-FordistFordist – dominant mode of mass production during the twentieth century, production of consumer goods at a single site.Post-Fordist – current mode of production with a more flexible set of production practices in which goods are not mass produced. Production is accelerated and dispersed around the globe by multinational companies that shift production, outsourcing it around the world.
45 Time-Space Compression Through improvements in transportation and communications technologies, many places in the world are more connected than ever before.
46 Time-Space Compression Just-in-time deliveryrather than keeping a large inventory of components or product, companies keep just what they need for short-term production and new parts are shipped quickly when needed.Two issues can result from reliance on just-in-time delivery: labor unrest and “Acts of God”• Global division of laborcorporations can draw from labor around the globe for different components of productionThis labor can be skilled or unskilled.
47 Electronic Computing Manufacturing Computer and parts manufacturing requires highly skilled workers and capital. It is clustered in the Northeast and the West Coast
48 Women’s and Girls’ Cut and Sew Apparel Manufacturing Manufacturing requiresmore skilled workers,and much manufacturingis still clustered in ornear New York City.
49 Deindustrializationa process by which companies move industrial jobs to other regions with cheaper labor, leaving the newly deindustrialized region to switch to a service economy and work through a period of high unemploymentAbandoned street in Liverpool, England, where the population has decreased by one-third since deindustrialization.
50 What is the Service Economy, and Where are Services Concentrated? Key QuestionWhat is the Service Economy, and Where are Services Concentrated?
51 Service Economy Service Industry Economic activity associated with the provision of services – such as transportation, banking, retailing, education, and routine office-based jobs.
52 Geographical Dimensions of the Service Economy New influences on Location:- information technologies- less tied to energy sources- market accessibility is more relevant forsome and less relevant for others because oftelecommunications.- presence of Multinational Corporations
53 Wal-MartRequires producers of goods to locate office in the Bentonville, Arkansas (Wal-Mart’s headquarters) area in order to negotiate deals with Wal-Mart.Proctor & Gamble put their office in nearby Fayetteville, Arkansas.How does the presence of these companies in the region change the region’s economy and its cultural landscape?
54 NikeHeadquartered in Beaverton, Oregon,. Nike has never produced a shoe in Oregon. Beginning in the 1960s, Nike contracted with an Asian firm to produce its shoes.Skopje, MacedoniaThe swoosh is ubiquitous, but where is the shoe produced?Nike has a global network of international manufacturing and sales
55 High – Technology Corridors An area designated by local or state government to benefit from lower taxes and high-technology infrastructure with the goal of providing high-technology jobs to the local population.eg. Silicon Valley, CaliforniaTechnopole – an area planned for high technology where agglomeration built on a synergy among technological companies occurs.eg. Route 128 corridor in Boston
56 Plano-Richardson, Texas Telecom Corridor is just north of Dallas
57 What majors are most popular at the college or university you will be attending? Consider what service/high- technology corridors may already exist near that college or university.Propose (where, why, how) a new service/high-technology corridor for your region based on what that college/university has to offer the industry.
58 Up Next: Exam Chapters 9 - 11 AP Human Geography Industry - Chapter 11Up Next: Exam Chapters• Then -Political GeographyRead Chapter 8llhammon Spring 2014