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AP Human Geography Industry - Chapter 11 APHG Spring 2014

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1 AP Human Geography Industry - Chapter 11 APHG Spring 2014
Ironbridge, England World’s first bridge made entirely of cast iron, constructed in late 1700s. APHG Spring 2014 llhammon Spring 2014

2 Key Issues Where is industry distributed?
Why are situation factors important? Why are site factors important? Why are location factors changing?

3 Where is Industry Distributed?
Origin of industry From cottage industries to the Industrial Revolution (series of events) Impact of the Industrial Revolution especially great on iron, coal, transportation, textiles, chemicals, and food processing Most significant impact of the IR was to promote concentration rather than dispersion of industry across the landscape

4 Diffusion of the Industrial Revolution
When, Where, Why: Island of Great Britain in mid-to late 1700s Why? Flow of capital Second agricultural revolution Mercantilism and cottage industries Resources: coal, iron ore, and water power Diffusion of railways

5 Industrial Revolution Hearths
The Industrial Revolution originated in areas of northern England. Factories often clustered near coalfields.

6 Flow of Capital Into Europe , 1775
Needed flow of capital in order to fuel the Industrial Revolution

7 Textiles Production: Liverpool and Manchester Iron Production: Birmingham Coal Mining: Newcastle

8 Diffusion to Mainland Europe
In early 1800s, innovations diffused into mainland Europe. Location criteria: proximity to coal fields; Connection via water to a port Flow of capital Later Diffusion In late 1800s, innovations diffused to some regions without coal. Location criteria: Access to railroad Flow of capital

9 Diffusion of Industrial Revolution

10 The Paris Basin is the Industrial base of France
The Paris Basin is the Industrial base of France. Rouen (pictured here) is at the head of navigation point on the Seine River.

11 Where is Industry Distributed?
Industrial regions Europe Emerged in late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries Western Europe, Central Europe, Russia (Europe/Asia) North America Industry arrived later but spread faster than in Europe East Asia

12 Industrial Regions The world’s major manufacturing regions are found in North America, Europe, and East Asia. Other manufacturing centers are also found elsewhere.

13 Industrial Areas in Europe

14 Industrial Areas in North America

15 Manufacturing Centers in East Asia
Many industries in China are clustered in three centers near the east coast. In Japan, production is clustered along the southeast coast.

16 Major Manufacturing Regions of East Asia

17 How do Location Theories explain Industrial Location?

18 Location Theory Location Theory – predicting where business will or should be located. Considerations: Variable costs Friction of distance

19 Location Models Weber’s Model
Manufacturing plants will locate where costs are the least (least cost theory) Theory: Least Cost Theory Costs: Transportation, Labor, Agglomeration Hotelling’s Model Location of an industry cannot be understood without reference to other industries of the same kind. Theory: Locational interdependence Losch’s Model Manufacturing plants choose locations where they can maximize profit. Theory: Zone of Profitability

20 Losch’s Model - Zone of Profitability
Zones of distance decay – sales will be unprofitable.

21 Why Are Situation Factors Important?
Proximity to inputs Location near markets Transport choices Types of Industries Bulk-reducing industries Examples: Copper Steel Others? Integrated steel mills in the U.S. are clustered near the southern Great Lakes, which helped minimize transport costs of heavy raw materials.

22 Proximity to markets Bulk-gaining industries Examples:
Fabricated metals Beverage production Single-market manufacturers Perishable products U.S.-owned parts plants are clustered near the main final assembly plants. Foreign-owned plants tend to be located further south, where labor unions are weaker.

23 Copper Industry in North America
Copper mining, concentration, smelting, and refining are examples of bulk-reducing industries. Many are located near the copper mines in Arizona

24 Location of Beer Breweries
Beer brewing is a bulk-gaining industry that needs to be located near consumers. Breweries of the two largest brewers are located near major population centers.

25 Why Are Situation Factors Important?
Ship, rail, truck, or air? The farther something is transported, the lower the cost per km/mile Cost decreases at different rates for each of the four modes Truck = most often for short-distance travel Train = used to ship longer distances (1 day +) Ship = slow, but very low cost per km/mile Air = most expensive, but very fast

26 Why Are Site Factors Important?
Labor The most important site factor Labor-intensive industries Examples: textiles Textile and apparel spinning Textile and apparel weaving Textile and apparel assembly

27 Cotton Yarn Production
Production of cotton yarn from fiber is clustered in major cotton growing countries, including the U.S., China, India, Pakistan, and Russia.

28 Woven Cotton Fabric Production
Production of woven cotton fabric is labor intensive and is likely to be located in LDCs. China and India account for over 75% of world production.

29 Production of Women’s Blouses
Sewing cotton fabric into women’s blouses is more likely to be located near customers in MDCs, but much production now occurs in LDCs.

30 Why Are Site Factors Important?
Land Rural sites Environmental factors Capital $$$

31 Site Selection for Saturn
GM considered a variety of economic and geographic factors when it searched for a site for producing the new Saturn in 1985. The plant was eventually located in Spring Hill, TN.

32 Why Are Location Factors Changing?
Attraction of new industrial regions Changing industrial distribution within MDCs Interregional shift within the United States Right-to-work laws Textile production Interregional shifts in Europe Convergence shifts Competitive and employment regions

33 Changing U.S. Manufacturing

34 Manufacturers of Men’s and Women’s Socks and Hosiery
Hosiery manufacturers usually locate near a low-cost labor force, such as found in the southeastern U.S.

35 European Union Structural Funds
•Manufacturing has diffused from traditional industrial centers in NW Europe toward Southern and Eastern Europe. • European government policies have encouraged this industrial relocation. • The EU provides assistance to what it calls convergence regions and competitive and employment regions. Central Europe offers manufacturers an attractive combination of two important site and situation factors – labor and market proximity. EU Structural Funds. The EU provides subsidies in regions with economic difficulties because of declining industries, as well as to regions that have lower-than-average incomes.

36 Why Are Location Factors Changing?
Attraction of new industrial regions International shifts in industry East Asia – one the of the world’s three major industrial regions. Rapid industrial growth; In addition to China and Japan, also includes S. Korea (world’s leading producer of lrg container ships (international trade) Leading producer of steel and fabricated metal products. South Asia – Led by India, one of the fastest-growing economies among lrg countries. Textiles dominant industrial sector; motor vehicle production is growing; important ctr for business services. Latin America – nearest low-wage region to the US. Maquiladora plants located in northern Mexico - shipping is lower to US from Mexico than any other LDC. Brazil leading industrial country in Latin America; industries clustered around two large cities in the SE part of Brazil.

37 Newly Industrialized •China – major industrial growth after 1950 • Industrialization in the 1960s was state-planned: (Why?) Focused on: Northeast District Shanghai and Chang District • Today, industrialization is spurred by companies that move productions (not the whole company) to take advantage of Chinese labor and special economic zones (SEZs) BRICs – Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa

38 As China’s economy continues to grow, old neighborhoods (right) are destroyed to make room for new buildings (below). Beijing, China

39 Changing distributions Modern Production
Outsourcing - moving individual steps in the production process (of a good or a service) to a supplier, who focuses their production and offers a cost savings. Offshore – Outsourced work that is located outside of the country.

40 World Steel Production
Since the 1980s, all the world’s increase in steel production has been in LDCs. China has had the greatest increase.

41 Global Production Steel production has generally declined in MDCs and increased in LDCs, especially in China, India, Brazil, and South Korea

42 Apparel Production and Jobs in the U S
Apparel production and jobs in the US. The number of jobs in the apparel industry has declined sharply in the US since the 1990s. Not by coincidence, the % of everyday clothing accounted for by domestic production has decreased sharply, replaced with imports.

43 Why Are Location Factors Changing?
Renewed attraction of traditional industrial regions Proximity to skilled labor Fordist, or mass production Post-Fordist, or lean production Just-in-time delivery

44 Post-Fordist Fordist – dominant mode of mass production during the twentieth century, production of consumer goods at a single site. Post-Fordist – current mode of production with a more flexible set of production practices in which goods are not mass produced. Production is accelerated and dispersed around the globe by multinational companies that shift production, outsourcing it around the world.

45 Time-Space Compression
Through improvements in transportation and communications technologies, many places in the world are more connected than ever before.

46 Time-Space Compression
Just-in-time delivery rather than keeping a large inventory of components or product, companies keep just what they need for short-term production and new parts are shipped quickly when needed. Two issues can result from reliance on just-in-time delivery: labor unrest and “Acts of God” • Global division of labor corporations can draw from labor around the globe for different components of production This labor can be skilled or unskilled.

47 Electronic Computing Manufacturing
Computer and parts manufacturing requires highly skilled workers and capital. It is clustered in the Northeast and the West Coast

48 Women’s and Girls’ Cut and Sew Apparel Manufacturing
Manufacturing requires more skilled workers, and much manufacturing is still clustered in or near New York City.

49 Deindustrialization a process by which companies move industrial jobs to other regions with cheaper labor, leaving the newly deindustrialized region to switch to a service economy and work through a period of high unemployment Abandoned street in Liverpool, England, where the population has decreased by one-third since deindustrialization.

50 What is the Service Economy, and Where are Services Concentrated?
Key Question What is the Service Economy, and Where are Services Concentrated?

51 Service Economy Service Industry
Economic activity associated with the provision of services – such as transportation, banking, retailing, education, and routine office-based jobs.

52 Geographical Dimensions of the Service Economy
New influences on Location: - information technologies - less tied to energy sources - market accessibility is more relevant for some and less relevant for others because of telecommunications. - presence of Multinational Corporations

53 Wal-Mart Requires producers of goods to locate office in the Bentonville, Arkansas (Wal-Mart’s headquarters) area in order to negotiate deals with Wal-Mart. Proctor & Gamble put their office in nearby Fayetteville, Arkansas. How does the presence of these companies in the region change the region’s economy and its cultural landscape?

54 Nike Headquartered in Beaverton, Oregon,. Nike has never produced a shoe in Oregon. Beginning in the 1960s, Nike contracted with an Asian firm to produce its shoes. Skopje, Macedonia The swoosh is ubiquitous, but where is the shoe produced? Nike has a global network of international manufacturing and sales

55 High – Technology Corridors
An area designated by local or state government to benefit from lower taxes and high-technology infrastructure with the goal of providing high-technology jobs to the local population. eg. Silicon Valley, California Technopole – an area planned for high technology where agglomeration built on a synergy among technological companies occurs. eg. Route 128 corridor in Boston

56 Plano-Richardson, Texas Telecom Corridor is just north of Dallas

57 What majors are most popular at the college or university you will be attending?
Consider what service/high- technology corridors may already exist near that college or university. Propose (where, why, how) a new service/high-technology corridor for your region based on what that college/university has to offer the industry.

58 Up Next: Exam Chapters 9 - 11
AP Human Geography Industry - Chapter 11 Up Next: Exam Chapters • Then - Political Geography Read Chapter 8 llhammon Spring 2014

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