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Unit 04 Chemical Bonding.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 04 Chemical Bonding."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 04 Chemical Bonding

2 Valence e- Valence e- - e- in the highest occupied energy level of an element’s atom Same as group # for groups 1 & 2 Subtract 10 from groups 13-18 electrons used in chemical bonding

3 Valence e- Br Lewis Dot Structure – shows number of valence e-
Ex: bromine Br

4 White Board Practice K C O Ar

5 B Mg S Xe Learning Check Which Lewis Dot Structure is incorrect? A. C.
C. Mg B D. B. S Xe

6 Octet Rule: - when forming compounds atoms want to have 8 e- (s2p6) like the noble gases (except He)

7 Cations (metals): positively charged ion, tend to lose e-
Na (atom) lose 1 e- + Na (cation) 1s22s22p63s1 1s22s22p6 Using the Dot Structure octet + lose 1 e- Na (cation) Na (neutral atom) 2+ lose 2 e- Mg (cation) Mg (neutral atom) +3 lose 3 e- B (cation) B (neutral atom)

8 ca+ion Cations +1 +2 +3

9 Anions (Nonmetals) – negatively charged ions, gain e-
Cl (atom) gain 1 e- Cl (chloride ion) 1s22s22p63s23p5 1s22s22p63s23p6 valence octet Using the Dot Structure - gain 1e- Cl (chloride ion) Cl (neutral atom) 2- gain 2e- O (oxide ion) O (neutral atom) gain 3e- -3 N (neutral atom) N Nitride ion)

10 Anions -3 -2 -1

11 N I Ca White Board Practice Li Li Ca + - +2 N I 3- gain 3e- Lose 1 e-
N gain 3e- N (nitride ion) + Lose 1 e- Li Li - I gain e- I (chloride ion) +2 Ca Lose 2e- Ca

12 Ionic Compound: Properties 1. ionic compounds form crystals
Composed of a metal (cation) and nonmetal (anion) Ionic bond – oppositely charged ions attract Electrically neutral (+) = (-) Generally called salts Properties 1. ionic compounds form crystals 2. high melting and boiling points 3. hard and brittle 4. conduct electricity when dissolved in water or melted

13 Ionic Bonding K2O Na+ Cl Cl Na O K+ K O K+ K NaCl - + + -2 +1 -1
1. Sodium and Chlorine - donates e- Na+ Cl Cl Na + NaCl +1 -2 2. Potassium and Oxygen Does O have 8? donates e- O K+ K -2 O + donates e- K+ K K2O

14 AlBr3 Mg3N2 Br Br Al Al+3 Br Br Br Br Mg+2 N N Mg+2 N N Mg+2 - - - -3
-1 3. Aluminum and Bromine Does Al have more electrons? - Br Br Al - Al+3 + Br Br - Br Br +2 -3 4. Magnesium and Nitrogen Does N have 8 yet? Mg+2 -3 Mg N N + Mg+2 -3 What about Mg’s other e-? N Mg N Mg+2 Mg Does N have 8 yet? Mg3N2

15 Ionic Bonding Title left side of spiral Ionic Bonding Copy the problem
Draw the Lewis Structure for ea. element used in bonding CATION = RED ANION = BLUE/GREENISH Show donated e- with an arrow Show New ions charges Put a BOX around the Formula

16 KF K F K F EXAMPLE: - + 1. Potassium & Fluorine + ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

17 Bonding in Metals Metallic bonds – the attraction between positive ions and surrounding mobile electrons Sea of Electrons Metal cations Good conductors of electrical current, ductile (wires), malleable (forced into shapes)

18 Covalent Compounds Also called MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS
Formed from 2 or more nonmetals Low melting and boiling point

19 Important differences between covalent and ionic compounds
Characteristic Covalent compound Molecular compound Ionic compound Representative unit Molecule Formula unit (balance of oppositely charged ions) Type of elements Nonmetallic Metallic combined with nonmetallic Melting & Boiling point Low High

20 Covalent Bonds F F F F F F Types of Covalent Bonds
Forms when 2 atoms share a pair of valence e- Types of Covalent Bonds 1. Single Covalent Bond – two atoms share a pair of e- Ex: F2 Unshared pair – e- not shared between atoms F F F F F F and What makes this bonding work? Atoms have 8 e- in their outer level to make them stable

21 Covalent Bonds H H H H Ex: H2 Why does H2 only need 2 e- to be stable?
Why does H2 only need 2 e- to be stable? first energy level only contains 2 e-

22 Covalent Bonds 2. Double Covalent Bond – 2 pairs of e- are shared between atoms Ex: O2 O O O O O O and

23 Covalent Bonds 3. Triple Covalent Bond – 3 pairs of e- are shared between atoms Ex: N2 N N N N N N and

24 Covalent Lewis Dot Structures
1. Draw each atom’s Lewis Structure 2. Connect single electrons until each atom has 8 e- (H only 2) 3. The central atom is often the first atom written & is usually the atom w/the least # of e-. (Exception – H can’t be the central atom)

25 Covalent Lewis Dot Structures
4. Place the unshared pairs around the atoms so ea. is stable (8 around it, except H – only 2) Examples: 1. Br2 Br Br Br Br

26 N N H H H H H H O C O C O O 2. NH3 3. CO2 ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

27 C C Cl Cl Cl Cl Cl Cl Cl Cl H H O O H H 4. CCl4 5. H2O ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

28 White Board Practice Problems:
1. CH4 H H C C H H H H H H

29 White Board Practice Problems:

30 White Board Practice Problems:
3. PH3 H P P H H H H H

31 White Board Practice Problems:
4. OF2 F O F O F F

32 White Board Practice Problems:
5. CHI3 H H I C C I I I I I

33 Title Left Side: Covalent Bonding Practice
Draw the molecule then tell me how many double bonds does it have? 1. CO2 Draw the molecule then tell me what kind of covalent bond is formed. 2. P2 Draw the following molecules. 3. SiO2 4. CH4

34 VSEPR Theory Explains the shapes of molecules.
The VSEPR theory states: b/c electrons repel each other, molecules adjust their shapes so that the valence e- pairs are as far apart from each other as possible. These are called electrostatic balanced positions

35 Shape Formula Bond Angle Electrons Linear AX2 180o 4 shared 0 unshared
Bent 105o 2 shared 2 unshared Trigonal Pyramidal AX3 107o 3 shared 1 unshared Tetrahedral AX4 109.5o Trigonal Planar 120o Contains a double bond

36 Bond Polarity Polar Covalent Bond – when 2 atoms are joined by a covalent bond and the bonding electrons are not shared equally

37 Bond Polarity Nonpolar Covalent Bond – when 2 atoms are joined by a covalent bond and the bonding electrons are shared equally

38 Differences between polar, nonpolar, and ionic bonds

39 How do you determine if a bond is polar, nonpolar, or ionic?
Subtract the electronegativities of the bonding atoms (p. 265 in textbook)

40 Electronegativity Differences & Bond Type
Type of Bond Electronegativity Difference Range Nonpolar Covalent Bond 0.0 – 0.4 Polar Covalent Bond 0.5 – 1.67 Ionic Bond greater than 1.67

41 3. Potassium and Chlorine 4. Fluorine and Fluorine
Determine if the bonds between the following atoms are polar, nonpolar, or ionic: 1. Hydrogen and Carbon 2. Oxygen and Carbon 3. Potassium and Chlorine 4. Fluorine and Fluorine H 2.2 C 2.55 0.35 Nonpolar O 3.44 C 2.55 0.89 Polar K 0.82 Cl 3.16 2.34 Ionic F 3.98 0.0 Nonpolar

42 Polarity of Molecule Polar Molecule – a molecule with a positive and negative end. Polar bonds must be present. Take into account if the molecule is symmetrical and if polar bonds are present.

43 Polarity of Molecule It is possible to have polar bonds but not a polar molecule! Carbon dioxide has 2 polar bonds and is linear (symmetrical). Bond polarities cancel out b/c they are in opposite directions. Carbon Oxygen Oxygen

44 Draw the dot structure of the following molecules – then predict the shape and polarity

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