Presentation on theme: "Exercise and Health. How does exercise enhance health? The exact way that exercise works to prevent the development of various chronic diseases in not."— Presentation transcript:
How does exercise enhance health? The exact way that exercise works to prevent the development of various chronic diseases in not well understood. Physical inactivity causes genes to mixexpress proteins, producing the metabolic dysfunctions that result in clinical disease.
Exercise and Health Most body cells produce and secrete small proteins known as cytokines. Two types of cytokines 1. Myokines - produced by muscle cells 2. Adipokines - produced by fat cells
Exercise and Health Local inflammation is linked to heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and dementia. Exercise produces anti inflammatory cytokines. Cytokines increase the number of glucose receptors in muscle cells, improving insulin sensitivity.
Exercise and Health Other Benefits - Loss of excess body fat may reduce cytokines that impair health. Not as many fat cells - not as many damaging hormones. - Loss of excess body fat may reduce estrogen levels, reducing risk of breast cancer.
Exercise and Health - Reduction of abdominal density may reduce blood pressure and lower cholesterol levels. - Increased stress on bone may stimulate increases in bone density. - Production of certain cytokines may enhance brain function.
Exercise and Health http://www.health.com/health/video/0,,2081748 1,00.html
Exercise and Health HOW MUCH IS ENOUGH? 80% adults to not get enough exercise. Aerobic exercise - 30 minutes daily of moderate-intensity exercise. It is as beneficial to do this in one session or in 3 10 minute “exercise snacks”.
Exercise And Health One study found that sedentary individuals who began an exercise program of walking 3 days per week achieved some but not all of the health benefits seen by those who walked 5 days per week. Benefits of more exercise increase moderately then plateau.
Exercise and Health Guidelines 1. Increase your unstructured activity walk instead of drive take the stairs instead of the elevator walk your dog instead of letting him run in the backyard park farther away
Exercise and Health Guidelines Increase your structured physical activity Research at least 10 activities that provide moderate levels of physical activity. Make a list of what they are and the duration and intensity to achieve benefits.
Exercise and Health Recommendations 1. Aerobic Exercise - Children and adolescents - 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous PA at least 3 times/week. - Adults - moderate-intensity aerobic exercise for 30 min. daily on 5 days of the week.
Exercise and Health 2. Resistance Exercise - Children and adolescents should do muscle strengthening activity at least 3 days/week. - Adults - should do exercises that maintain or increase strength of 8-10 exercises that work the major muscle groups. The should perform 8-12 reps of each exercise at least 2x/week.
Exercise and Health 3. Flexibility and balance exercises Older adults should do exercises to help maintain or increase flexibility on at least 2 days per week for at least 10 minutes. Older adults should do exercises for balance about 3 times per week. http://nihseniorhealth.gov/exerciseandphysicala ctivityexercisestotry/balanceexercises/01.html
Exercise and Health 4. Individualization Exercise programs, especially for older adults, should be individualized for each person based on fitness level, health status. One key concept is more is better. http://health.gov/paguidelines/pdf/paguide.pdf
Exercise and Health Check out 5 the following websites and summarize what they have to say about exercise. www.americanheart.orwww.americanheart.org www.healthypeople.gov/hp2020 www.exercisemedicine.org/public.htm www.exerciseismedicine.org/Yourprescription.h tm
Exercise and Health www.exerciseismedicine.org/fitpros.htm www.nia.hih.gov www.aaperd.org/letsmoveinschool www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/en www.Americaonthemove.org www.fitness.gov www.choosetomove.org
Exercise and Health Can too much exercise be harmful to my health? If you follow the guidelines set in any of the programs from the previous websites, you should be safe and get the benefits provided by physical activity. It could be a problem if you have a preexisting condiditon.
Exercise and Health Excessive exercise in people with a preexisting condition may have some problems. - Orthopedic problems - stress fractures in those who run and those with poor biomechanics
Exercise and Health - Impaired immune function - While moderate activity can help immune function, prolonged, high-intensity exercise may temporarily impair immune resistance. It may cause higher rates of upper respiratory infection. It may also lead to chronic fatigue.
Exercise and Health Exercise induced asthma Anaphylaxis was induced by exercise in 5% of cases.
Exercise and Health Osteoporosis When diet is not adequate and exercise leads to excessive weight loss it can contribute to loss of menstrual period, loss of bone mass or osteoporosis
Exercise and Health Heat illness and kidney failure Exercising in the heat may cause heat stroke or other heat illness with serious consequences such as kidney failure and death.
Exercise and Health Sudden death Although death among athletes is rare, it is 2- 4x more frequent than other non athletes of the same age. There are a number of possible causes of this that will be discussed in future chapters.
Exercise and Health Conclusions: A properly planned exercise program is safe and gives many health benefits to most people. Medical screening is recommended before beginning an exercise program. The best protection for the heart - exercise.