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Intellectual Disability

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Presentation on theme: "Intellectual Disability"— Presentation transcript:

1 Intellectual Disability
By: Haseena Abdur-Rahman

2 What is Intellectual Disability
Intellectual disability is defined in several ways 1. the person’s iq must fall below 70, or two standard deviations below the mean on a normal curve 2. the person’s adaptive behavior is severely below the appropriate level for that person’s age 3. these limitations must be present before the age 18 (Ciccarelli, S. K., & White, J. N. 2012, 2009, 2006)

3 Is intellectual disability determined by just an IQ test?
No, The evaluation and classification intellectual disability is a complex issue. The IQ test is a major tool in measuring intellectual functioning, which is the mental capacity for learning, reasoning, problem solving, ect. A test score below or around 70—or as high as 75—indicates a limitation in intellectual functioning. Other tests determine limitations in adaptive behavior, include: 1. Conceptual skills—language and literacy; money, time, and number concepts; and self-direction 2. Social skills—interpersonal skills, social responsibility, self-esteem, gullibility, naïveté (i.e., wariness), social problem solving, and the ability to follow rules, obey laws, and avoid being victimized 3. Practical skills—activities of daily living (personal care), occupational skills, healthcare, travel/transportation, schedules/routines, safety, use of money, use of the telephone (American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities 2013)

4 How often does it occur? According to the American Psychiatric Association, intellectual disability occurs in about 3 percent of the population. (American psychiatric association) (Jussel , Wanted: Female Creative Directors To Change the Media Landscape)

5 What is the proper terminology
The older term, mental retardation, is still sometimes used to refer to the condition of intellectual disability (Ciccarelli, S. K., & White, J. N. 2012, 2009, 2006) Individuals with this condition, however, may more commonly be referred to as developmentally delayed (Ciccarelli, S. K., & White, J. N. 2012, 2009, 2006) Being Developmentally delayed means that your behavioral and cognitive skills exist at an earlier developmental stage than the skills of others who are the same chronological age (Ciccarelli, S. K., & White, J. N. 2012, 2009, 2006)

6 Classifications Intellectual disability can vary from mild to extreme severe. Even the flaws, iq test scores are still used to classify the various levels of delay (Ciccarelli, S. K., & White, J. N. 2012, 2009, 2006)

7 What causes intellectual disability?
There are a number of causes such as lack of oxygen at birth, damage to the fetus in the womb from diseases, infections, or drug us by the mother, and even diseases and accidents during childhood can lead to intellectual disability Unhealthy living conditions can affect brain development It can cause familial retardation, or a delay related to living in poverty conditions and one that usually produces relatively mild intellectual disability The three most common biological causes of intellectual disability are down syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome, and fragile x syndrome (Ciccarelli, S. K., & White, J. N , 2009, 2006)

8 Down syndrome Down syndrome is a genetic disorder caused when abnormal cell division results in extra genetic material from chromosome 21. This genetic disorder, which varies in severity, causes lifelong intellectual disability and developmental delays, and in some people it causes health problems. (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, )

9 fetal alcohol syndrome
Fetal alcohol syndrome is a condition that results from exposing a developing embryo to alcohol, and intelligence levels can range from below average to levels associated with intellectual disability (Ciccarelli, S. K., & White, J. N. 2012, 2009, 2006)

10 fragile x syndrome In fragile x syndrome, a male has a defect in a gene on the x chromosome of the 23rd pair, leading to a deficiency in a protein needed for the brain development Depending on the severity of the damage to this gene, symptoms of fragile x syndrome can range from mild to severe or profound intellectual disability (Ciccarelli, S. K., & White, J. N. 2012, 2009, 2006)

11 Is intellectual disability the same as developmental disabilities?
"Developmental Disabilities" is an term that includes intellectual disability, but also includes other disabilities that are apparent during childhood. Developmental disabilities are severe chronic disabilities that can be cognitive or physical or both. The disabilities appear before the age of 22 and are likely to be life long. Some developmental disabilities are largely physical issues, such as cerebral palsy or epilepsy. Some individuals may have a condition that includes a physical and intellectual disability, for example Down syndrome or fetal alcohol syndrome. Intellectual disability encompasses the “cognitive” because it is a disability that is broadly related to thought processes. (American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities 2013)

12 How would a professional test if a child have an intellectual disability?
A diagnosis of intellectual disability is based not only on iq tests scores Also based on the strengths and weaknesses of the person in adaptive functioning Also on the onset of impairment in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior before the age 18 Aaidd, or the American association on intellectual and developmental disabilities, may also assist in defining and assessing intellectual disability. (Ciccarelli, S. K., & White, J. N. 2012, 2009, 2006)

13 the American association on intellectual and developmental disabilities or the AAIDD
When it comes to defining and assessing intellectual disability, the AAIDD stresses that additional factors must be taken into account, such as the community environment typical of the individual’s peers and culture. Professionals should also consider linguistic diversity and cultural differences in the way people communicate, move, and behave. Finally, assessments must also assume that limitations in individuals often coexist with strengths, and that a person’s level of life functioning will improve if appropriate personalized supports are provided over a sustained period. Only on the basis of such many-sided evaluations can professionals determine whether an individual has intellectual disability and tailor individualized support plans (American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities 2013)

14 What is the most modern thinking about how to help people with intellectual disability?
The overarching reason for evaluating and classifying individuals with intellectual disabilities is to tailor supports for each individual in the form of a set of strategies and services provided over a sustained period We should enhance people’s functioning within their own environment in order to lead a more successful and satisfying life Some of this enhancement is thought of in terms of self-worth, subjective well being, pride, engagement in political action, and other principles of self-identity (American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities 2013)

15 Conclusion Ultimately Intellectual disability affects a person’s intellectual capabilities and adaptive behaviors However, Individuals with an intellectual disability are just as responsive to love and affection as anyone else and need to be loved and have friends (Ciccarelli, S. K., & White, J. N. 2012, 2009, 2006)

16 Works Cited American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD). (2013). Definition of intellectual disability. Ciccarelli, S. K., & White, J. N. (2012, 2009, 2006). Psychology. (third ed., pp ). Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc. Jussel (Photographer). (2012, September 26). Wanted: Female Creative Directors To Change the Media Landscape [Print Photo]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. ( ). Down syndrome.

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