Intellectual Disability More frequently used outside US Increasing use in US AAMR (American Association on Mental Retardation) is now AAIDD (American Association on Intellectual & Developmental Disabilities) 1/2007 7-8 million in US 1% of total population 1/10 families impacted U.S. Dept. of Health & Human Service Other sources: 3% of total population Carter, Van Andel, & Robb, 2003
MENTAL RETARDATION DEFINITION Significantly subaverage intellectual function Concurrent with limitations in adaptive skills 2 or more Manifested before 18 Person/environment interaction Similar definition APA in DSM-TR IV & AAMR
Adaptive Skills Communication Home living Using community resources Work Free time Academic achievement Self-care Self-direction Social & interpersonal skills Health Safety
MENTAL RETARDATION (New) Functional level Mild Moderate Support level (resources/strategies) Intermittent: As needed Limited: Short time intervals Extensive: Regular basis in some environments Pervasive: Consistent
Mental Retardation Many causes 3 major causes Fetal alcohol syndrome Down syndrome Fragile X syndrome 1/3 causes unknown Prolonged labor Low birth weight Older mothers Shaken baby syndrome
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Caused by mother drinking Mental & physical birth defects Growth deficits Central nervous system dysfunction Behavioral maladjustments Fetal Alcohol Effect is less severe set of same symptoms www.jau.wvu.edu
Fragile X Syndrome Hereditary Range of severity May have behavioral disorders May have speech & language delays Trouble processing sounds, sight, smell, sensations, Do not like to be touched More severe in males
Down Syndrome Genetic (extra genetic material from 21 st chromosome) Flaccid muscles / motor problems Small fingers and hands /coordination problems Large tongues & small mouth /language problems Congenital heart defects (40-45%) Lung problems Obesity Stubborn (central nervous system)
Down Syndrome Hearing deficits (60-80%) Premature aging Early onset Alzheimer’s (age 40) Atlantoaxial instability (10-20%) Excessive movement in C1/C2 joint Doctor’s clearance for SO/sports Not involve in gymnastics, diving, butterfly swimming stroke, soccer, etc.
Co-Existing Conditions Cerebral Palsy Seizure Disorder Vision Impairment ADHD More severe, more likely to have co- existing
Considerations/Accommodations Assess functional level Small concrete steps (task analysis) Allow more time to complete tasks Repetition Practice time Modeling (Demonstrate vs. describe) Age appropriate Skills & staff interaction No baby talk
Considerations/Accommodations Have high expectations May learn slowly Teach to generalize skills to different environments Routines Praise Facilitate social interaction & appropriate social behaviors Encourage physical activity Best Buddies Others?????