Presentation on theme: "SURFACE MINING CONTROL AND RECLAMATION ACT OF 1977 Rosemary Newsome."— Presentation transcript:
SURFACE MINING CONTROL AND RECLAMATION ACT OF 1977 Rosemary Newsome
DESCRIPTION The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977(SMCRA) regulates mining activity, rehabilitates abandoned mines, tries to restore land and water resources, and protects society and the environment from future adverse effects of mining operations. It is a national policy of the U.S.
WHAT DOES IT DO EXACTLY? Prior to 1977, when amendment was enacted, 1.1 million coal sites had been abandoned. The SMCRA collected money for the Abandoned Mine Reclamation Fund which provides funds for rehabilitating land damaged by mining activities, restoring abandoned mining sites, and addressing issues including landslides, land subsidence, and fires. In addition, the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement within the U.S. Department of the Interior was formed. It controls and can restrict surface mining operations, sets permit requirements, reviews and approves state programs, carries out inspections, and conducts enforcement when necessary.
AMENDMENTS Abandoned Mine Reclamation Act of 1990: prohibited mountaintop coal mining and funded operations through 1995 Energy Policy Act of 1992: ensured funding through 2004
http://www.eoearth.org/view/article/156351/ The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) was enacted in 1977 after the US Congress recognized the need to regulate mining activity, rehabilitate abandoned mines, and protect society and the environment from the adverse effects of mining operations. Before 1977, surface coal mining landowners had abandoned 1.1 million coal mine sites in the United States. The SMCRA directed owners of coal mines to contribute bonds for land rehabilitation and environmental damages caused by mining activities. The flow of collected funds went into the Abandoned Mine Reclamation Fund to finance restoration of abandoned sites. The act established the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement; it controls surface mining operations, reviews and approves state programs, and conducts enforcement when necessary. The SMCRA did not prohibit mountaintop coal mining, an activity that steadily increased after 1977. The Abandoned Mine Reclamation Act of 1990 amended this act and extending funding operations through 1995. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 further extended funding to 2004.coalmountaintopEnergy Policy Act of 1992
http://www.fws.gov/laws/lawsdigest/SURFMIN.HTML This Act establishes a program for the regulation of surface mining activities and the reclamation of coal-mined lands, under the administration of the Office of Surface Mining, Reclamation and Enforcement, in the Department of the Interior. The law sets forth minimum uniform requirements for all coal surface mining on Federal and State lands, including exploration activities and the surface effects of underground mining. Mine operators are required to minimize disturbances and adverse impact on fish, wildlife and related environmental values and achieve enhancement of such resources where practicable. Restoration of land and water resources is ranked as a priority in reclamation planning.
http://teeic.anl.gov/lr/dsp_statute.cfm?topic=12&statute=238 Legislation regulating the environmental effects of coal mining in the United States. This Act (30 USC 1201 - 1328) created the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM) within the U.S. Department of the Interior to establish and oversee programs for regulating active coal mines on federal and state lands and reclamation of abandoned mine lands. The regulation of active mines is intended to prevent environmental degradation as a result of coal mining and includes environmental performance standards, permit requirements, reclamation bond requirements, inspection and enforcement authority, and restrictions on mining on certain lands. The reclamation program consists of an Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation (AML) Fund to pay for the cleanup of abandoned mine sites through both state and federal programs and to address issues associated with landslides, land subsidence, and fires associated with coal mining. The full suite of regulations promulgated by the OSM under SMCRA is available at 30 CFR 700-955.30 USC 1201 - 132830 CFR 700-955