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4.1.1 Biodiversity.

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Presentation on theme: "4.1.1 Biodiversity."— Presentation transcript:

1 4.1.1 Biodiversity

2 Biodiversity The amount of biological diversity per unit area.
It includes: genetic, habitat and species diversity

3 Is the total number of genetic characteristics of a specific species.
Genetic Diversity Is the total number of genetic characteristics of a specific species.

4 Habitat Diversity Variety of forests, deserts, grasslands, lakes, oceans, coral reefs, wetlands, and other biological communities, (niches per unit area).

5 Species Diversity Is the number of species or organisms per unit area found in different habitats of the planet.

6 State of US species.

7 Critical and endangered
Projected Status of Biodiversity 1998–2018 Critical and endangered Threatened Stable or intact ANTARCTICA NORTH AMERICA EUROPE AFRICA ASIA SOUTH AUSTRALIA Pacific Ocean Antarctic Circle Tropic of Cancer Tropic of Capricorn Indian Atlantic 150° 90° 60°E 30°W 120° 60° 30°N 30°S Arctic Circle

8 What are the relationships among ecosystem stability, diversity, succession and habitat ?

9 How does diversity change during succession?
How does habitat diversity influence species diversity and genetic diversity? How does ecosystem complexity, with its variety of nutrient and energy pathways, provide stability? How do human activities (agriculture, mining, logging, etc.) modify succession? What are the potential positive and negative results of human activities that simplify ecosystems? (monocrop agriculture)

10 Why Should We Care About Biodiversity?
Instrumental value: usefulness to us. Intrinsic value: because they exist, Regardless of whether they are useful to us or not.

11 Goods Food, fuel, ecosystems, species, fiber, lumber, paper, …
90% of today’s food crops 40% of all medicines (85% of antibiotics) Foxglove Digitalis purpurea, Europe Digitalis for heart failure Pacific yew Taxus brevifolia, Pacific Northwest Ovarian cancer

12 Ecological Services: Flow of materials, energy, and information in the biosphere Photosynthesis Pollination Soil formation and maintenance Nutrient recycling Moderation of weather extremes Purification of air and water

13 Information: Genetic information: adaptation and evolution Genetic information for genetic engineering Educational and scientific information Option: People would be willing to pay in advance to preserve the option of directly using a resource such as a tree, an elephant, a forest or a clean lake.

14 Recreation: Nonutilitarian:
Hunting, fishing, swimming, scuba diving, water skiing, Eco-tourism Nonutilitarian: Existence Aesthetic Protect natural capital for future generations

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