7 Critical and endangered Projected Status of Biodiversity1998–2018Critical and endangeredThreatenedStable or intactANTARCTICANORTHAMERICAEUROPEAFRICAASIASOUTHAUSTRALIAPacificOceanAntarctic CircleTropic of CancerTropic of CapricornIndianAtlantic150°90°60°E0°30°W120°60°30°N30°SArctic Circle
8 What are the relationships among ecosystem stability, diversity, succession and habitat ?
9 How does diversity change during succession? How does habitat diversity influence species diversity and genetic diversity?How does ecosystem complexity, with its variety of nutrient and energy pathways, provide stability?How do human activities (agriculture, mining, logging, etc.) modify succession?What are the potential positive and negative results of human activities that simplify ecosystems? (monocrop agriculture)
10 Why Should We Care About Biodiversity? Instrumental value:usefulness to us.Intrinsic value:because they exist,Regardless of whetherthey are useful to us ornot.
11 Goods Food, fuel, ecosystems, species, fiber, lumber, paper, … 90% of today’s food crops40% of all medicines (85% of antibiotics)FoxgloveDigitalis purpurea,EuropeDigitalis for heart failurePacific yewTaxus brevifolia,Pacific NorthwestOvarian cancer
12 Ecological Services:Flow of materials, energy, and information in the biospherePhotosynthesisPollinationSoil formation and maintenanceNutrient recyclingModeration of weather extremesPurification of air and water
13 Information:Genetic information: adaptation and evolutionGenetic information for genetic engineeringEducational and scientific informationOption:People would be willing to pay in advance to preserve the option of directly using a resource such as a tree, an elephant, a forest or a clean lake.
14 Recreation: Nonutilitarian: Hunting, fishing, swimming, scuba diving, water skiing,Eco-tourismNonutilitarian:ExistenceAestheticProtect natural capital for future generations