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Levels of ecological organization

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Presentation on theme: "Levels of ecological organization"— Presentation transcript:

1 Levels of ecological organization

2 Human Activity that changes Abiotic and Biotic Factors

3 Cold Snowy Weather

4 Unit 3: Ecology

5 What is Ecology? The scientific study of the interactions among organisms and between their environments.

6 Where do we fit in? What is our environment? The Biosphere

7 What is the organization of Ecological Study?
Individual Population Community Ecosystem Biome Biosphere

8 Levels of Organization
Individual- one organism (living) Ex a moose

9 Levels of Organization
Population- groups of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area. (living-living same species) Ex many moose

10 Levels of Organization
Community- groups of different populations (more than one population or different groups of species) Ex many groups of moose beavers, trees, grass (all living)

11 Levels of Organization
Ecosystem- all organisms in a particular area along with the nonliving. (living and nonliving) Ex many groups of moose beavers, trees, grass, rocks, water, mountains

12 Levels of Organization
Biome- group of ecosystems that have the same climate and similar dominant communities Biomes: tropical rain forest, tropical dry forest, tropical savannah, temperate grassland, desert, temperate woodland and shrubland, temperate forest, northwestern coniferous forest, boreal forest (taiga), tundra, mountains and ice caps

13 Levels of Organization
Biosphere- all of the planet where life exists, includes land, water, and, air Life extends 8 km up and 11 km below the surface

14 Factors that affect an ecosystem
Biotic – Living or once living Abiotic – Never living

15 Biotic Factors Living factors of an ecosystem
All plant and animal life Includes even microscopic organisms

16 Abiotic factors Any non-living factor of an ecosystem

17 List the abiotic and biotic factors found in:
Ecosystem: School Ecosystem: pond Please provide your own example Ecosystem: Biotic Factors: Abiotic Factors:

18 Is it biotic or abiotic? Birth rate? Predator / prey relationship?
Soil? Decomposing matter? Temperature? Wind? Disease?

19 List 3 biotic things and 3 biotic things

20 -- ecological pyramid drawing-pick one organism to begin
Your pyramid must include : Label all 6 levels Include a drawing for each level And a brief description of each picture/level DUE TOMORROW

21 Carrying Capacity The size of the population that an environment can support with its resources This is created by the interaction of many different factors, both biotic & abiotic

22 Carrying Capacity Graph
This is the generic carrying capacity graph Each peak represents too many Each trough represents lower than supported

23 Inquiry Activity Use the smartboard activity to figure out how carrying capacity is determined

24 Limiting Factors Any condition that limits growth of a population
Can be biotic or abiotic Surplus population is reduced by limiting factors

25 Habitat & Niche Habitat – where an organism lives in an ecosystem
Niche – The role of an organism in its habitat Think of habitat like the address where an organisms lives and niche as the job that an organism does

26 Ecosystem Interactions (Biotic)
When organisms live and interact in a community 3 basic types Competition – organisms fight for limited supplies Predation – one organism hunts and eats another Symbiosis – 2 organisms live closely together (usually one directly impacts the other)

27 Competition Organisms fight for survival due to limited resources
Resource - anything used to keep an organism alive Food, water, shelter, etc… Competitive exclusion principle No 2 species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same time

28 Interspecific competition
Competition between species 2 or more species compete for the same limited resources Food sources Shelter Water source

29 Intraspecific Competition
Competition within a species 2 or more members of a species competes for limited resources Food Water Shelter Mates Social hierarchy

30 Critical thinking activity
Think, Pair, Share Do humans engage in interspecific competition? How? Do humans engage in intraspecific competition? How?

31 Predation Predator / Prey relationship
Predator – organism that hunts and eats another organism Prey – organism that is hunted and eaten by another organism How is the predator a limiting factor on the prey population? How is the prey population a limiting factor on the predator population?

32 Symbiosis 3 main types Mutualism – both species benefit
Commensalism – one benefits, the other is unharmed Parasitism – one benefits, the other is harmed

33 Mutualism Lichens Made of a mutualistic relationship between fungus and algae Fungus provides home and some nutrients Algae provides energy through photosynthesis This patch is the lichen

34 Commensalism Bluebird holes
Bluebirds use woodpecker holes made in trees after they are done looking for food in them Bluebirds get a free home Woodpeckers are neither helped nor hurt by the bluebirds using their old holes

35 Parasitism Tapeworm Tapeworms live in the intestine and absorb the nutrients instead of the host The parasite harms the host by stealing nutrients

36 Identify the relationship
Think, Pair, Share Identify the following relationships… 2) 1) 3)

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