5 What is Ecology?The scientific study of the interactions among organisms and between their environments.
6 Where do we fit in?What is our environment?The Biosphere
7 What is the organization of Ecological Study? IndividualPopulationCommunityEcosystemBiomeBiosphere
8 Levels of Organization Individual- one organism (living)Ex a moose
9 Levels of Organization Population- groups of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area. (living-living same species)Ex many moose
10 Levels of Organization Community- groups of different populations (more than one population or different groups of species)Ex many groups of moose beavers, trees, grass (all living)
11 Levels of Organization Ecosystem- all organisms in a particular area along with the nonliving. (living and nonliving)Ex many groups of moose beavers, trees, grass, rocks, water, mountains
12 Levels of Organization Biome- group of ecosystems that have the same climate and similar dominant communitiesBiomes: tropical rain forest, tropical dry forest, tropical savannah, temperate grassland, desert, temperate woodland and shrubland, temperate forest, northwestern coniferous forest, boreal forest (taiga), tundra, mountains and ice caps
13 Levels of Organization Biosphere- all of the planet where life exists, includes land, water, and, airLife extends 8 km up and 11 km below the surface
14 Factors that affect an ecosystem Biotic – Living or once livingAbiotic – Never living
15 Biotic Factors Living factors of an ecosystem All plant and animal lifeIncludes even microscopic organisms
16 Abiotic factorsAny non-living factor of an ecosystem
17 List the abiotic and biotic factors found in: Ecosystem: SchoolEcosystem: pondPlease provide your own exampleEcosystem:Biotic Factors:Abiotic Factors:
18 Is it biotic or abiotic? Birth rate? Predator / prey relationship? Soil?Decomposing matter?Temperature?Wind?Disease?
20 -- ecological pyramid drawing-pick one organism to begin Your pyramid must include :Label all 6 levelsInclude a drawing for each levelAnd a brief description of each picture/levelDUE TOMORROW
21 Carrying CapacityThe size of the population that an environment can support with its resourcesThis is created by the interaction of many different factors, both biotic & abiotic
22 Carrying Capacity Graph This is the generic carrying capacity graphEach peak represents too manyEach trough represents lower than supported
23 Inquiry ActivityUse the smartboard activity to figure out how carrying capacity is determined
24 Limiting Factors Any condition that limits growth of a population Can be biotic or abioticSurplus population is reduced by limiting factors
25 Habitat & Niche Habitat – where an organism lives in an ecosystem Niche – The role of an organism in its habitatThink of habitat like the address where an organisms lives and niche as the job that an organism does
26 Ecosystem Interactions (Biotic) When organisms live and interact in a community3 basic typesCompetition – organisms fight for limited suppliesPredation – one organism hunts and eats anotherSymbiosis – 2 organisms live closely together (usually one directly impacts the other)
27 Competition Organisms fight for survival due to limited resources Resource - anything used to keep an organism aliveFood, water, shelter, etc…Competitive exclusion principleNo 2 species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same time
28 Interspecific competition Competition between species2 or more species compete for the same limited resourcesFood sourcesShelterWater source
29 Intraspecific Competition Competition within a species2 or more members of a species competes for limited resourcesFoodWaterShelterMatesSocial hierarchy
30 Critical thinking activity Think, Pair, ShareDo humans engage in interspecific competition? How?Do humans engage in intraspecific competition? How?
31 Predation Predator / Prey relationship Predator – organism that hunts and eats another organismPrey – organism that is hunted and eaten by another organismHow is the predator a limiting factor on the prey population?How is the prey population a limiting factor on the predator population?
32 Symbiosis 3 main types Mutualism – both species benefit Commensalism – one benefits, the other is unharmedParasitism – one benefits, the other is harmed
33 MutualismLichensMade of a mutualistic relationship between fungus and algaeFungus provides home and some nutrientsAlgae provides energy through photosynthesisThis patch is the lichen
34 Commensalism Bluebird holes Bluebirds use woodpecker holes made in trees after they are done looking for food in themBluebirds get a free homeWoodpeckers are neither helped nor hurt by the bluebirds using their old holes
35 ParasitismTapewormTapeworms live in the intestine and absorb the nutrients instead of the hostThe parasite harms the host by stealing nutrients
36 Identify the relationship Think, Pair, ShareIdentify the following relationships…2)1)3)