USE TO EXPRESS THE SPEAKER’S OPINION INCLUDING: Advise Possibility Probability Obligation Ability Necessity Permission Desire and Contingency
FEATURES INVARIABLE: no –s, 3rd person sing. She must study – (X) she musts study NO NEED THE “DO” SUPPORT IN ?/- SENTENCES. You don’t should tell him – Do you can swim? NOT FOLLOWED BY INFINITIVE WITHOUT “TO”. (x) You must to go – You shouldn’t eating so much. THEY DO NOT HAVE: Infinitive Future tense Past Participle - ing
What about: “have to”, “be able to”, “need to” (full verbs) they do not share these features but they share some of the uses. have to (obligation): You have to study hard if ….. Be able to (ability): After 5th year you will be able to speak English very well.
ADVISE AND OPINIONS SHOULD (not); OUGHT (not). I think you should study English harder. We all ought to have a good command of English language. I don’t think you should…. better than …I think you shouldn’t …..
ADVISE, RECOMMENDATIONS AND OBLIGATION ADVISE: We all must read more in English. RECOMMENDATIONS BASED ON OUR OWN EXPERIENCE: You should read the undomestic goddess, it’s hilarious¡¡¡¡. STRONG OBLIGATION (law, authority): Students in private school must wear a uniform.
NECESITY - OBLIGATION Must / have to You must be home by 12 o’clock. (the obligation comes from I have to be home by 12 o’clock. the speaker) The meaning is similar but “have to” can be used in all the forms, even the interrogatives. Yesterday, I had to do the washing up. You will have to stydy hard if….
MUSN’T – DON’T HAVE TO MUSN’T (PROHIBITION): You musn’t smoke in the premises. DON’T / DOESN’T HAVE TO (LACK OF NECESSITY): You don’t have to wear a uniform at school.
ABILITY PRESENT ABILITY: I can speak English. If you work hard you will be able to pass the exam. PAST GENERAL ABILITY/VERBS OF PERCEPTION: When I was a child, I could read and write. PAST ABILITY (ON ONE OCCASION): It was a difficult exam but I managed to do it / succeed in doing it. VERBS OF PERCEPTION (ON ONE OCCASION): With a big effort, I could hear her explanations.
REQUEST CAN WILL YOU COULD WOULD… YOU OPEN THE DOOR? WOULD YOU MIND + -ING?? WOULD YOU BE SO KING OF + -ING??
REQUEST AND PERMISSION WILL YOU HELP ME WITH THIS EXERCISE? You ask somebody for help SHALL I HELP YOU WITH THIS EXERCISE? You offer yourself to help somebody.
SPECULATING CERTAINTY: THAT SOMETHING IS TRUE: It’s eight o’clock, she must be in class. THAT SOMETHING IS IMPOSSIBLE: It’s ten o’clock, he can’t be in class.
SPECULATING POSSIBILITY: + CAN: Finally, I can go to the party(I’m sure) MAY: I may go to the party(I’m not sure it’s possible) - MIGHT I might go to the party(It’s improbable)
DEDUCTIONS MUST HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE: (CERTAINTY ABOUT THE PAST) We went to Rome last month.- that must have been nice. A women phoned while you were out - that must have been K CAN is used in questions and negatives: Where can John have put the matches?- He can’t have thrown them away, can he?.
DEDUCTIONS MAY / MIGHT / HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE: (POSSIBILITY ABOUT THE PAST) K. is very late. She may have missed the train. What was that noise? It might have been a cat. May/might have + past participle can sometimes refer to the present or future. I’ll try phoning him but he may have gone out by now. By the end of this year, I might have saved some money.
DEDUCTIONS COULD HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE to mean “would have been able to….” If he had run faster he could have won. MIGHT HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE to mean “would perhaps have” or “would possibly have”. If I hadn’t been so tired, I might have realized what was happening.