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Published byAshley Osborne Modified over 7 years ago
9/4/20151 MODALS in the PAST
9/4/20152 can't havecouldcould havecouldn'tcouldn't have didn't need tohad tomay havemay not havemight have might not havemust haveneedn't have ought not to have ought to have should haveshouldn't havewould havewould not We can use the modal perfect to talk about the past. Modal perfect = modal + have + past participle
9/4/20153 Certainty Ex: I can't have lost my keys! (I'm sure I didn't) can't have could 1- Permission Ex: When I was a teenager, I could go out as late as I wanted. 2- General ability Ex:Tom could walk by the age of 8 months.
was able to / managed to We tend to use was able to or managed to if we are talking about what happened in a particular situation or are referring to a specific achievement (we can’t use COULD): Were you able to / Did you manage to speak to him before he left home? ~ No, I'm sorry, I wasn't able to / didn't manage to reach him. 9/4/20154
However, with verbs that refer to the five senses, see, hear, smell, feel, taste, and with verbs that refer to thought processes, understand, believe, remember, decide, we normally use could, even when we are talking about specific occasions: He was standing very close to me and I could smell the garlic on his breath. He asked me when Julie's birthday was, but I couldn't remember. 9/4/20155
MANAGED TO / MANAGE manage = succeed / cope We use the verbs manage to and manage a great deal in current English when we want to say that we are able to cope with a difficult situation or find time for a particular task. Compare the following: Veronica was very upset when Ben left her, but she managed to smile nevertheless. Can I give you a hand with that? ~ No, it's all right. I'll manage./ I can manage.
9/4/20157 could have 1- Possibility, but did not happen Ex: I could have passed my driving test if I'd really tried. 2- Uncertainty Ex: I guess it could have been Sandra on the phone.
9/4/20158 Couldn’t 1- Permission Ex: When I was a teenager, I couldn't stay out as late as I wanted. 2- General ability Ex: I couldn't walk until I was 2. 3- Ability in a particular situation Ex: I tried hard but I couldn't persuade him to go to the party with us.
9/4/20159 Couldn't have 1- Possibility/ability Ex: I couldn't possibly have passed my driving test, even if I'd tried harder. 2- Uncertainty Ex: It couldn't have been Sandra on the phone, could it? 3- With comparative adjectives Ex: I couldn't have asked for better weather on my wedding day. 4- Unwillingness Ex: I couldn't have left the dog in the car for long (so I didn't).
9/4/201510 had to Obligation (past form of must) Ex: I couldn't go out last night because I had to do my homework.
Be obliged to forced, required, bound, compelled, under an obligation, under compulsion, without any option.forcedrequiredboundcompelled Ex: - Doctors are legally obliged to take some precautions. - I was obliged to answer their questions. 9/4/201511
Be required to /supposed to needed; necessary. Ex- "I was supposed to report to the police every week.” Ex: You were required to fill out your EI forms every two weeks. 9/4/201512
Needn't have and didn't need to Both these forms are used to talk about past events, but there is sometimes a difference in use. When we say that someone needn't have done something, it means that they did it, but it was not necessary. Didn't need to is also sometimes used in this way: You needn't have washed the dishes. I would've put them in the dishwasher. You didn't need to wash the dishes. I would've put them in the dishwasher. 9/4/201513
But we also use didn't need to to say that something was not necessary under circumstances where it was not done: The sun came out so we didn't need to take any rainwear on the trip. We had plenty of petrol in the tank so I didn't need to fill up. We didn't need to wait for long for them. They arrived just after us. 9/4/201514
9/4/201515 may have Uncertainty Ex: I guess I may have been a bit hard on her when she came home an hour late. may not have Uncertainty Ex: He may not have found out yet that he has passed the test.
9/4/201516 might have 2- Uncertainty Ex: I guess I might have been a bit hard on her when she came home an hour late. 1- Possibility (didn't happen) Ex: You might have been killed! 3- Annoyance at someone's failure to do something Ex: You might have told me that you had invited all your colleagues round for dinner!
9/4/201517 might not have Uncertainty Ex: He may not have found out yet that he has passed the test. must have Certainty Ex: He must have known how much it was going to cost. (I'm sure he knew.)
9/4/201518 ought not to have Criticism (more common is shouldn't have) Ex: You ought not to have been so frank with him. ought to have Expectation (should have is more common) Ex: Why is she late? She ought to have arrived by now!
9/4/201519 should have 1- Expectation Ex: Why is she late? She should have arrived by now! 2- should have + verbs of thinking Ex: I should have thought you knew. 3- Criticism (you didn't do something, but it would have been the right thing to do) Ex: The party was such fun last night! You should have come!
9/4/201520 shouldn't have 1- Criticism Ex: You shouldn't have been so frank with him. 2- Polite expression of thanks on receiving a gift or favour Ex: A: "Here's a bottle of wine for you" B: "Oh, you really shouldn't have!"
9/4/201521 would have 1- Events in the past that did not happen Ex: I would have gone out with him, but he didn't ask me. 2- Assumptions Ex: Oh, that would have been Sarah on the phone just now. would not Unwillingness Ex: I asked Tom to close the window, but he wouldn't do it.
9/4/201522 Exercise 1: Look at the example and rewrite the sentences in the possible past forms. Example: I should go to the funeral. I should have gone to the funeral. Lex might take Karen to the airport. Lex ………………. Karen to the airport. I have to go to California. (past form?)California 4.I …………. go to California. might have taken could have taken would have taken had to
9/4/201523 Exercise 2: Use a Modal Perfect to complete the sentences (in the right tense) 1- Otis didn't come to work yesterday. a- He …..................... (take) care of his children. b- His children …………………. (be) sick. 2- They went on holiday. a- I saw their lights a few minutes ago, they …………………. (go) on holiday! b- They …………………. (go) to Hawaii. had to take must have been can’t have gone must have gone
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