14 7Upon whose observations did Johannes Kepler base his three laws of planetary motion?Tycho Brahe
15 Matching 8-10 8. eccentricity 9. ellipse 10. orbital period a. a closed curve whose shape is determined by two points, or focib. the time required for a body to complete a single orbitc. the degree of elongation of an elliptical orbit
16 11 What does the law of ellipses state? Keplar’s first law: Each planet orbits the sun in a path called an ellipse
17 Shape of OrbitsPlanets orbit in an elliptical shape
18 12In planetary orbits, one focus is located within the _________________, and no object is located at the other focus.sun
19 13 How is eccentricity determined? By dividing the distance between the foci of the ellipse by the length of the major axis.
20 14 What did Kepler discover about the orbit of Mars? Mars moves fastest in its elliptical orbit when it is closest to the sun.
21 15The law of equal areas states that equal areas are covered in equal amounts of time as an object orbits the ___________.SunKepler’s second law
22 16Kepler’s third law, the law of periods, describes the relationship between the average distance of a planet from the sun and the _____ ____ of the planet.orbital period
23 17According to the law of periods, the cube of the average _________of a planet from the sun is always proportional to the square of the period.distance (a)
24 18 What mathematical formula is used to explain the law of periods? K x a3 = p2is the average distance of a planet from the sun(p) orbital periodK is a constant