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Bell Ringer 9/8 OPINION QUESTION – How do you believe the solar system was formed?

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Presentation on theme: "Bell Ringer 9/8 OPINION QUESTION – How do you believe the solar system was formed?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Bell Ringer 9/8 OPINION QUESTION – How do you believe the solar system was formed?

2 Chapter 28 Formation of the Solar System

3 Big Bang Theory Theory that universe began as a point and has been expanding ever since

4 Solar System Theories rely on observation and data from probes sent into space Theories explain –Shape of solar system –Differences between planets –Nature of planetary surface

5 Stars & Planets form from interstellar clouds, which exist in space between the stars

6 Orion Cloud

7 Triangulum.nebula ulum.nebula.full.jpg/563px-Triangulum.nebula.full.jpg

8 Interstellar Clouds Consist mostly of hydrogen and helium gas with small amounts of other elements and dust –Dust makes clouds look dark by blocking light –Dust also reflect starlight and makes clouds look bright

9 How astronomers believe solar system formed Density of interstellar gas is low Gravity slowly draws matter together until the matter is concentrated enough to form stars and planets

10 Interstellar Cloud Collapse of cloud begins slowly but gradually gets faster Cloud becomes more dense at center If rotating, the cloud spins faster as it contracts, due to centripetal force. (DEMONSTRATION)

11 Interstellar Cloud Interstellar cloud that formed our solar system collapsed into a rotating disk of dust and gas Concentrated matter at the center acquired enough mass to form the Sun Remaining matter gradually condensed to form planets

12 Interstellar Cloud Temperature varied greatly with location Different elements and compounds condensing, affected distribution of elements on the planets –Depending on their distance from the Sun

13 Planetesimals Space objects built of solid particles that can form planets through collisions

14 Large Planets First to develop was Jupiter –Increased in size through the merging of icy planetesimals that contained mostly lighter elements Saturn and the other gas giants formed same way –Not as large because Jupiter collected so much material

15 Inner Planets Planets that formed near the young Sun Composed primarily of elements that resist vaporization (didn’t become gassy) Rocky and dense

16 Debris Material that remained after the formation of the planets and satellites Some became icy objects known as comets Others formed rocky planetesimals known as asteroids –Thousands of asteroids have been detected in the asteroid belt, which lies between Mars and Jupiter.

17 In-Class Assignment/Homework

18 Bell Ringer 9/9 Explain in your own words how scientists believe our sun formed

19 28.1 B Models of Solar System

20 Aristotle 3 rd century BC Geocentric: Earth-centered solar system –did not explain retrograde (backward) motion of planets

21 Aristotle

22 Ptolemy 3 rd century AD Planets revolve around Earth in circles –epicycles to explain retrograde motion

23 Ptolemy

24 Retrograde motion The apparent backward movement of a planet The changing angles of view from Earth create the apparent retrograde motion of Mars.

25 Tycho Brahe a Danish astronomer Made accurate observations of the planets’ positions

26 Nicolaus Copernicus

27 Copernicus 16 th century Heliocentric: sun-centered model Earth and planets orbit the sun in the same direction, but at diff. speeds and distances

28 Copernicus Solves problem of retrograde motion 1700’s Galileo proves this with telescope

29 In-Class Assignment/Homework Ancient Astronomers WKT

30 Bell Ringer 9/10 Who said our solar system was geocentric? Who said it was heliocentric?

31 Kepler 17 th century Used observations of his teacher, Brahe, to explain planetary motion.

32 Johannes Kepler

33 Kepler Each planet orbits the Sun in a shape called an ellipse, rather than a circle –An ellipse is an oval shape that is centered on two points.

34 Kepler’s 1 st Law Law of ellipses : planets orbit the sun not in a circle, but in an ellipse. Astronomical unit: average distance between the sun and the earth.

35 Kepler’s 2 nd Law Law of equal areas: Earth moves fastest when closest to the sun –Line from the center of a planet sweeps through equal areas in equal periods of time.

36 Kepler’s 3 rd Law Law of periods: Relationship between distance from the sun and the orbit period. –Orbit period: the time required for the planet to make one revolution around the sun.

37 Galileo Galilei Galileo.arp.300pix.jpg

38 Galileo  First person to use a telescope to observe the sky  Discovered that four moons orbit the planet Jupiter  Proved that not all celestial bodies orbit Earth and Earth was not necessarily the center of the solar system

39 Isaac Newton

40 Inertia: objects want to move in a straight line at constant speed until acted upon by an outside force Gravity: force that pulls them out of that straight line

41 In-Class Assignment/Homework WKT 87 – Kepler’s La #3 = Major axis – line that runs along diameter of ellipse, Semimajor axis – average distance between sun and the planet #4 = Eccentricity – shape of the planet’s elliptical orbit

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