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Development of Questionnaire By Dr Naveed Sultana.

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1 Development of Questionnaire By Dr Naveed Sultana

2 Objectives Understand the attributes of a well-designed questionnaire, and Adopt a framework for developing questionnaires.

3 What is questionnaire A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents. Although they are often designed for statistical analysis of the responses, this is not always the case. The questionnaire was invented by Sir Francis GaltonresearchquestionsstatisticalSir Francis Galton

4 Qualities of a good questionnaire The design of a questionnaire will depend on whether the researcher wishes to collect exploratory information (i.e. qualitative information for the purposes of better understanding or the generation of hypotheses on a subject) or quantitative information (to test specific hypotheses that have previously been generated).

5 Exploratory questionnaires Exploratory questionnaires: If the data to be collected is qualitative or is not to be statistically evaluated, it may be that no formal questionnaire is needed. For example, in interviewing the female head of the household to find out how decisions are made within the family when purchasing breakfast foodstuffs, a formal questionnaire may restrict the discussion and prevent a full exploration of the woman's views and processes. Instead one might prepare a brief guide, listing perhaps ten major open-ended questions, with appropriate probes/prompts listed under each.

6 Formal standardised questionnaires If the researcher is looking to test and quantify hypotheses and the data is to be analysed statistically, a formal standardised questionnaire is designed. Such questionnaires are generally characterised by: prescribed wording and order of questions, to ensure that each respondent receives the same stimuli · prescribed definitions or explanations for each question, to ensure interviewers handle questions consistently and can answer respondents' requests for clarification if they occur prescribed response format, to enable rapid completion of the questionnaire during the interviewing process.

7 A well-designed questionnaire should meet the research objectives It should obtain the most complete and accurate information possible. A well-designed questionnaire should make it easy for respondents to give the necessary information and for the interviewer to record the answer, and it should be arranged so that sound analysis and interpretation are possible.

8 It would keep the interview brief and to the point and be so arranged that the respondent(s) remain interested throughout the interview.

9 Steps preceding questionnaire design To articulate the questions that research is intended to address. To determine the hypotheses around which the questionnaire is to be designed.

10 Preliminary decisions in questionnaire design Decide the information required. Define the target respondents. Choose the method(s) of reaching your target respondents. Decide on question content. Develop the question wording. Put questions into a meaningful order and format. Check the length of the questionnaire. Pre-test the questionnaire. Develop the final survey form.

11 General Criteria Determine the purpose Decide what you are measuring (Attitude, Knowledge, Skills) Who should be asked? Consider the audience. Choose an appropriate data collection method.

12 Choose a collection procedure: anonymous vs. confidential Choose measurement scale and scoring Title the questionnaire Start with non-threatening questions Include simple instructions Ask only one question at a time

13 Avoid “loaded” questions Arrange in a logical order Minimize open-ended questions Use plain language Be brief Put most important questions up front Provide space to tell more

14 Make sure it looks professional Use a cover letter Check reliability and validity Get approval before administering a questionnaire to human subjects. Thank respondents

15 Choose measurement scale and scoring A. Fixed-response: Yes-No True-False Multiple Choice Rating Scale/Continuum (such as a Likert-type scale) Agree-Disagree Rank ordering B. Open-ended (narrative response)

16 Determine the purpose What do I need to know? Why do I need to know it? What will happen as a result of this questionnaire?

17 Decide what you are measuring Attitude Knowledge Skills Goals, intentions, aspirations Behaviors and practices Perceptions of knowledge, skills, or behavior

18 Consider the audience Age Education level Familiarity with tests & questionnaires Cultural bias/language barrier

19 Choose an appropriate data collection method. Mailed Telephone Personal (face-to-face) interview Web-based

20 Qualitative vs Quantitative Research Qualitative research gathers information that is not in numerical form. For example, diary accounts, open-ended questionnaires, unstructured interviews and unstructured observations. Qualitative data is typically descriptive data and as such is harder to analyze than quantitative data. Qualitative research is useful for studies at the individual level, and to find out, in depth, the ways in which people think or feel (e.g. case studies). Analysis of qualitative data is difficult and requires accurate description of participant responses, for example, sorting responses to open questions and interviews into broad themes.

21 Expert knowledge of an area is necessary to try to interpret qualitative data and great care must be taken when doing so, for example, if looking for symptoms of mental illness.

22 Quantitative Research Quantitative research gathers data in numerical form which can be put into categories, or in rank order, or measured in units of measurement. This type of data can be used to construct graphs and tables of raw data. Experiments typically yield quantitative data, as they are concerned with measuring things. However, other research methods, such as observations and questionnaire can produce both quantitative and qualitative information.

23 Qualitative & Quantitative Data Qualitative Data Deals with descriptions. Data can be observed but not measured. Colors, textures, smells, tastes, appearance, beauty, etc. Qualitative → Quality Quantitative Data Deals with numbers. Data which can be measured. Length, height, area, volume, weight, speed, time, temperature, humidity, sound levels, cost, members, ages, etc. Quantitative → Quantity

24 Questionnaire and Data A rating scale or closed questions on a questionnaire would generate quantitative data as these produce either numerical data or data that can be put into categories (e.g. “yes”, “no” answers). Whereas open-ended questions would generate qualitative information as they are a descriptive response.


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