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Survey Designs EDUC 640- Dr. William M. Bauer

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Presentation on theme: "Survey Designs EDUC 640- Dr. William M. Bauer"— Presentation transcript:

1 Survey Designs EDUC 640- Dr. William M. Bauer
Chapter 13 Survey Designs EDUC 640- Dr. William M. Bauer l

2 Key Ideas History of Survey Research Types of Survey Designs
Key Characteristics of Designs Constructing Questionnaires Conducting Interviews Steps in the Survey Research Process Criteria for Evaluating Survey Research l

3 A Brief History of Survey Research
1817 International Survey of Education Systems 1890 Stanley Hall survey of children 1907 the Pittsburgh Survey examined social problems l

4 A Brief History of Survey Research
WWI and WWI sampling techniques improved Applications began to vary from social science to media Universities established social science research centers Private organizations such as Gallup, Rand Corporation, and Roper formed l

5 Types of Survey Designs
Cross-sectional longitudinal Longitudinal trend cohort panel l

6 Types of Cross-sectional Longitudinal Survey Designs
Time of Data Collection Study Over Time Study at One Point in Time Longitudinal Cross-sectional Trends in the same population over time Changes in a sub-population group identified by a common characteristic over time Changes in the same people over time Attitudes and Practices Community Needs Program Evaluation Group Comparisons National Assessment Trend Cohort Panel l

7 Key Characteristics of Survey Designs
Sampling from a population Collecting data through questionnaires or interviews Designing instruments for data collection Obtaining a high response rate Designing and using a mailed questionnaire Conducting an interview survey l

8 Population, Target Population, Sampling Frame, Sample
The Population is the group of individuals having one characteristic that distinguishes them from other groups. The Target Population or Sampling Frame is the actual list of sampling units from which the sample is selected. The Sample Is the group of participants in a study selected from the target population from which the researcher generalizes to the target population. l

9 Collecting Data Through Questionnaires
Mailed questionnaires Electronic questionnaires One-on-one interviews Focus group interviews Telephone interviews l

10 Forms of Data Collection in Survey Research
Who Completes or Records the Data? Participant Researcher Mailed Questionnaire Electronic Questionnaire One on One To a Group Over Telephone Individual Interview Focus Group Interview Telephone Interview l

11 Designing Instruments For Data Collection: Types of Questions
personal attitudinal behavioral sensitive scale open-ended l

12 Question Construction Problems
Question is unclear Multiple questions Question is wordy Question is negatively worded Overlapping responses l

13 Question Construction Problems
Unbalanced response options Mismatch between questions and answers Question includes overly technical language Not all questions are applicable to all the participants l

14 Pilot Testing Test on a small number of individuals in the sample
Ask for written feedback on the questions Revise the survey based on the written comments Exclude the pilot participants from the final sample for the study l

15 Obtaining a High Response Rate
Mail out original questionnaire with cover letter Follow it in two weeks with a second mailing of questionnaire to those who have not responded Follow again in two weeks with a postcard to non-respondents reminding them to complete the questionnaire l

16 Three Phase Survey Administration Procedure
Step 1: First Mailing of Survey Step 2: Second Mailing of Survey Step 3: Postcard Mailing 2 Weeks 2 Weeks 2 Weeks Start 6 Weeks Time l

17 Planning and Designing a Mailed Questionnaire
Write a cover letter to invite the participants to complete the questionnaire Form and construct the questionnaire Identify what statistical procedures will be used to analyze data from the mailed questionnaire l

18 Conducting an Interview Survey
The interviewer should maintain a neutral stance during the interview Train the interviewers prior to the interview Take good notes of responses or use a tape recorder For telephone interviews, develop a telephone interview guide prior to the interview l

19 Steps in Conducting Survey Research
Decide if a survey is the best deign to use Identify the research questions or hypotheses Identify the population, the sampling frame and the sample Determine the survey design and data collection procedures l

20 Steps in Conducting Survey Research
Develop or locate an instrument Administer the instrument Analyze the data to address the research questions or hypotheses Write the report l

21 Criteria For Evaluating Survey Research
Was the target population or sampling frame clearly specified? Was the sampling procedure specified? If a random sample was not used, were modifications from it explained? Was the sample clearly identified and the basis on which it was chosen specified? l

22 Criteria For Evaluating Survey Research
Did the type of survey match the questions or hypotheses advanced by the author? Was it clear whether a questionnaire or an interview survey comprised the form of data collection? Did the researcher identify the basis for selecting or developing the instrument? l

23 Criteria For Evaluating Survey Research
Was information reported on reliability and validity of scores from past use of the questionnaire or interview? Did the author mention the dates on which the questionnaire or interview was administered? Were the administration procedures clearly identified? l

24 Criteria For Evaluating Survey Research
If a questionnaire was used, were the procedures for obtaining responses identified? Were follow-up procedures used to ensure a high response rate? l

25 Criteria For Evaluating Survey Research
If an interview was used, were the field procedures for collecting this information specified? Were demographic characteristics, previous experience, training, and monitoring discussed for the interviewer(s)? Did the data analysis match the research questions or hypothesis to be answered in the study? l

26 Criteria For Evaluating Survey Research
Did the researcher check on the reliability and validity of scores from the data collection in the study? Was the study written scientifically and ethically? l

27 Applying What you Have Learned: A Survey Study
Review the article and look for the following: The research problem and use of quantitative research Use of the literature The purpose statement and research hypothesis Types and procedures of data collection Types and procedures of data analysis and interpretation The overall report structure l

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