2 objectives Analyze the 3 boxes of memory Summarize how we use short term memory, and the parts of the brain associated with memoryDescribe the different contents of L.T.M.
3 Core ConceptEach of the 3 memory stages encodes and stores memory in a different way, but they work together to transform sensory experience into lasting record that has a pattern of meaningCapacity- How muchDuration- How longStructure, function, biological basis
4 Three-box model of memory chapter 8Three-box model of memory
5 Want to process this lecture? 3 stages Like an assembly lineSensory MemoryWorking MemoryLong-term MemoryPioneered by Richard Atkinson, Richard Shiffrin
6 chapter 8Sensory memoryA memory system that momentarily preserves extremely accurate images of sensory informationPattern recognitionThe identification of a stimulus on the basis of information already contained in long-term memoryInformation that is not quickly passed to short-term memory is gone forever.
7 Sensory Memory Most fleeting of the 3 Involves lights, sounds, smells, texturesSparkler on 4th, listen to musicMaintain long enough to go into working memoryVision and hearing for graphic organizers
9 chapter 8Short-term memoryA limited capacity memory system involved in the retention of information for brief periodsAlso used to hold information retrieved from long-term memory for temporary useWorking memoryA memory system which includes STM and mental processes that control retrieval of information from LT memory and interpret that information appropriately for a given taskChunkMeaningful unit of information which may be composed of smaller units
10 Working MemoryTakes info. Selected from sensory registers and connects it with items already in long term storageBuilt for a few seconds to 30, temporarily holds items. Such as a phone numberNew info + long term memory= mental scratch padFor example contains numbers and instructions for doing necessary operations and intermediate results from each step
11 Methods for improving S.T.M. Maintain rehearsal- going over (like for the spring play)Chunking units, like phone number
13 chapter 8Long-term memoryThe memory system involved in the long-term storage of informationOne way information is organized is in semantic categories (e.g., animals).
14 Capacity and Duration of Long-Term Memory Unlimited storageExperiences, events, information, emotions, skills, words, categories, rules, Everything from STMTotal knowledge of world and selfCan store memory for a lifetimeUndisputed champion of memory
16 Types of long-term memories chapter 8Types of long-term memories
17 Contents of long-term memory chapter 8Contents of long-term memoryProcedural memoriesMemories for performance of actions or skills“Knowing how”Declarative memoriesMemories of facts, rules, concepts, and events; includes semantic and episodic memory“Knowing that”
18 Squire’s types of L.T.M.Procedural Memory- Mental directions or procedures“how to” ride a bike, tie a shoeIn acquisition conscious of detailsThen skill occurs beyond awareness
20 2nd part Squire’s types of L.T.M. Declarative memory- Stores specific information.Facts, events.Directions to a specific location, lat. long.Requires some conscious thought
21 Contents of long-term memory chapter 8Contents of long-term memorySemantic memoriesGeneral knowledge, including facts, rules, concepts, and propositionsEpisodic memoriesPersonally experienced events and the contexts in which they occurred
22 Tulving’s types of LTMSemantic memory- Stores basic meanings of words and conceptsNo info about time and placeMeaning of word ‘cat’Encyclopedia or data baseFaces, names, religious beliefs, music manners
23 Tulving’s LTMEpisodic memory- D.M. that stores personal experiences, events, episodesHas temporal coding or ‘ time tags’When, Where, Context of memoryThus E.M. is autobiographical memory
24 chapter 8Your turnWhat kind of memory is your memory for the fact that the earth is round?1. Procedural memory2. Semantic memory3. Episodic memory4. Flashbulb memory
25 chapter 8Your turnWhat kind of memory is your memory for the fact that the earth is round?1. Procedural memory2. Semantic memory3. Episodic memory4. Flashbulb memory
26 Serial-position effect chapter 8Serial-position effectThe tendency for recall of first and last items on a list to surpass recall of items in the middle of the list