Presentation on theme: "THE ROCK CYCLE. Did you know… True or False? –the elements that make up rocks are never created or destroyed –Rocks can’t transform into other rocks –The."— Presentation transcript:
Did you know… True or False? –the elements that make up rocks are never created or destroyed –Rocks can’t transform into other rocks –The earth is hot liquid in the very center –Extremely high pressure at the center of the earth makes the center solid In 1556, which country had the most deadly earthquake, killing 800,000 people?
Minerals Minerals are naturally occurring solids. A mineral may be a single element such as copper (Cu) or gold (Au), or it may be a compound made up of a number of elements. About 2,500 different minerals have been found.
Rocks Rocks are made up of one or more minerals Rocks are the most common material on Earth. There are 3 types of rock: –Each group differ from each other on the basis of the size, shape, and arrangement of mineral grains.
THREE TYPES OF ROCKS 1.Igneous Rocks (igneous/ ignite = fire) 2.Formed from the cooling of molten rock above or below the earths surface 3.Because magma is liquid and usually less dense than surrounding solid rock, it moves upward to cooler regions of the Earth. As the magma loses heat, it cools and crystallizes into an igneous rock.
2 types of Igneous Rock A. Extrusive= Volcanic igneous rocks formed from magma that cooled quickly on or near the earth's surface. B. Intrusive= Plutonic igneous rocks form from slow cooling of magma far beneath the surface. The slow cooling allows for crystals to form.
2. Sedimentary Rocks Any rock (igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic) exposed at the Earth's surface can become a sedimentary rock. Over time, wind, rain, snow, and ice combine to break down or dissolve (erosion), and carry away rocks exposed at the surface. These particles eventually come to rest (deposited) and become hard rock. Forms layers
Sedimentary Sedimentary rocks tell us what the Earth's surface was like in the geologic past. They can contain fossils that tell us about the animals and plants or show the climate in an area. Sedimentary rocks are also important because they may contain water for drinking or oil and gas to run our cars and heat our homes.
3. Metamorphic Rocks : The word metamorphic means 'changed', so rocks that have changed are called metamorphic rocks. Layers of sedimentary or igneous rocks are changed by underground heat or underground pressure. Physical or chemical changes result! They have a layered or streaky appearance. For example: When limestone is heated and compressed it forms marble. Sandstone changes into a much harder rock called quartzite. When exposed to higher temperatures, metamorphic rocks may be partially melted resulting in the recycling of rocks starting the cycle all over again
THERE ARE FOUR MAIN LAYERS THAT MAKE UP THE EARTH: 1.Inner Core - A mass of iron with a temperature of about 7000 degrees F. Although such temperatures would normally melt iron, immense pressure on it keeps it in a solid form. The inner core is approximately 1,500 miles in diameter.
2. Outer Core A mass of molten (liquid) iron about 1,425 miles deep that surrounds the solid inner core. Electrical currents generated from this area produce the earth's magnetic field.
3. Mantle A rock layer about 1,750 miles thick parts of this layer become hot enough to liquify and become slow moving molten rock or magma. Partly liquid magma
4. Crust A layer from 4 to 25 miles thick consisting of sand and rock. Thinnest layer of earth All 2,500 minerals are found here
Roger the Rock Assignment Create a story about Roger, a metamorphic rock. Students must describe at least three transitions that occurred during Roger's life, such as changing from metamorphic to igneous, igneous to sedimentary, and sedimentary to igneous. Students have the option of writing a diary, creating a cartoon, or making a children's book. Be creative and feel free to add some humorous insights into Roger's life.