Harold promised William the throne When Harold I died, Harold became king William of Normandy was not happy. September 1066 Harold fights off Vikings October 1066 William arrives in England Saxons vs Normans Normans win October 14, 1066
William replaces the existing ruling class with French speaking monarchy Feudalism Law and Order Domesday Book Castles Chivalry
All land owned by King Gives land to Barons who, Give land to Knights who, Give land to the serfs IN EXCHANGE… The serfs provide food and service Knights provide protection Barons provide knights and money
Lots of Saxons, few Normans Laws were created to protect Normans If a Frenchman accuses an Englishman of murder, theft or perjury, that Englishman shall be allowed to defend himself either by ordeal through combat or by ordeal by hot iron. No one shall be executed for crimes they have committed; but if they are guilty of a crime, they will be blinded and castrated. This law is not to be challenged.
William ordered a complete survey of all of England. Inventory and tax The reeve from a manor and six peasants were questioned for every manor visited. How many ploughs are there in the manor ? How many mills and fishponds ? How many freemen, villagers and slaves are there in the manor ?
Castles were a sign of Norman power and might The castles also gave the Norman soldiers a safe place to live. Motte and Bailey castles: made of wood and on a hill. Stone keep castles: very high and strong Tower of London.
Knights- sons of nobles Start training at age 7: manners, dancing, playing chess, singing Squire at age 14: personal servant to a knight (Wart to Sir Kay) Chivalry- “cheval” (French for horse)- horse warriors
A product of feudalism, chivalry was an idealized system of manners and morals Restricted to nobility The Medieval knight was bound to the chivalric code to be loyal to… God his lord his lady Chivalric ideals include... benevolence brotherly love politeness Sir Gawain is an example
Romance- romanz (Romans)- referring to Latin based languages Courtly love is modeled after the feudal relationship between knight and lord. Serve lady with obedience, loyalty, and submission. Major theme in Medieval Literature
Provided guidance through well known precepts.. Seven Deadly Sins Pride Greed Wrath Envy Gluttony Sloth Lust
Fight the heathens!!! Christians vs Muslims for Jerusalem Started in 1096; lasted 200 years Created trade routes and major cities along the way to Jerusalem Corrupted the church: Pope power Selling indulgences Crusades for money
spreads along trade routes kills much of the population the plague outbreaks occur through the Middle Ages and into the Renaissance Paradoxically, the Plague provides for continued growth in cities Afterwards, hundreds of new jobs available Many debts “died off” with creditors also contributed to society’s culture
Church – Latin Nobility – French Common people – English (Middle) English was thought of as a trashy language…nobody wrote literature in it (except for Chaucer in the 14 th century)
1. Romance Adventure! Not kissy-kissy romance A narrative in prose or verse that tells of the adventures and heroic exploits of chivalric heroes exploits of knights often a supernatural element involved 2. Christian message concern with salvation and the world to come no interest in social change
3. Heroism from both Germanic and Christian traditions, sometimes mingled Beowulf Sir Gawain and the Green Knight 4. Presentations of idealized behavior literature as moral lesson loyalty to king Chivalry Courtly Love