Importance Foreword Cloud computing Characteristics Service Users Benefit Challenges in E-government Cloud government. Design Service Deployment model
much of the computing world today. many experts : “the next big thing.” leading computer market analyst firm: “no less influential than e-business” October 2009 survey of IT executives by CIO: number one subject of interest
World Wide Web in 1995 was one such revolutionary change. access to information any where. remove barriers to publish information. e-business. changed entire industries.
In 2000 ( at the height of the dotcom bubble ) Application Service Providers (ASP) Rather than in house, they could be hosted elsewhere, offered to multiple clients. Example : Salesforce.com with (CRM).
Grid Computing distributed system with non-interactive workloads that involve a large number of files, heterogeneous and geographically dispersed. from multiple administrative domains to reach a common and single goal.
Virtualization. share physical resource. host multiple operating systems concurrently. better use of capacity. Example : VMware's desktop software: runs on Microsoft Windows Linux Mac OS X Server software: run directly on server hardware without operating system.
Cloud Computing In 2004 Essentially, it is the model used by: ( Salesforce, Amazon, Google, Facebook) be always on. changes and upgrades occurring on the running system. accordance with demand.
National Institute of Standards and Technology NIST Cloud computing is a model for: – enabling ubiquitous. – Convenient. – on-demand network access. to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) – rapidly provisioned and released – minimal management effort or service provider interaction.
cloud providers: install and operate application software in the cloud cloud users: access the software from cloud clients. not manage the cloud infrastructure and platform where the application runs.
Examples of SaaS include: - Google Apps - Gmail - Microsoft Office 365 - Onlive, GT Nexus - Marketo (http://www.cloudfoundry.com/use) - Casengo and TradeCard. - Springpad ( springpad.com ) CRM: - Salesforce. Cloude storage: - DropBox - Google drive
cloud providers deliver a computing platform: operating system programming language execution environment Database web server. Application developers can: Develop run their software solutions on a cloud platform without the cost hardware and software layers.
Infrastructure as a service providers offer computers physical or (more often) virtual machines. virtual-machine disk image library raw (block) and file-based storage, firewalls, load balancers, IP addresses, virtual local area networks (VLANs), and software bundles.
1.Cost containment : invest money in building up and maintaining their own IT infrastructure. 2.Innovation speed : provisioned with just a few hours’ notice, rather than weeks or months. 3.Availability : Redundant interconnection and load balancing make it possible to satisfy high availability business requirements. 4.Scalability : The flexibility and scalability of cloud services enable the rapid adaptation of IT to changing business needs. 5.Efficiency : an organization can focus on its core business and invest innovatively into research and development. 6.Elasticity : an organization can focus on its core business and invest innovatively.
1.Enormous inventory : to create unique and dedicated solutions for each government program and department 2.Cost. 3.Diversity of technology environments. 4.Abundance of contractual arrangement : the abundance of contractual arrangements that hamper the government from receiving the full value of timely technology advancements 5.Solutions: Cloud computing
Software as a service (SaaS): – Citizen Engagement: Gov-Apps, Internet Services, Blogging/Surveys/Twitter, Social Networking, Information/Knowledge Sharing (Wiki). – Government Productivity: Communication (e-mail, IM), Productivity Tools (office automation), and Collaboration (e-meeting). – Enterprise Applications: Core Mission & Business Services, Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP).
Platform as a service (PaaS): – Application Development, Data, Workflow, Developer Testing Tools. – Security Services (Single SignOn, Authentication, etc.) – Database Management Systems. – Directory Services, Virtual Environments.
Infrastructure as a service (IaaS): – Networks, Security, Mainframes, Servers, Storage. – Telecom Carrier Services. – IT Facilities/Hosting Services.
deployment models can be selected. Private Cloud: – for an organization and is more secure for C- government. – High sensitive and important data and applications. Community Cloud: – Shared by several organizations. Public Cloud: – available to the general public. Hybrid Cloud: – composition of two or more Clouds
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