Gartner’s Hype Cycle on Emerging Technologies 2011
Current trends Cloud computing Grid Computing Distributed Computing
Gartner’s Hype Cycle on Emerging Technologies 2012
Driving forces: commerce Strong industrial needs and driving forces –Improve resource utilization –Use available resources efficiently –Save energy –Decrease cost Consumer needs –Cost effectiveness –Easy access to resources –Pay-as-you-go –No initial investments –Self-service
Provides services –Resources, applications, tools –Large-scale, heterogeneous, economic, mobile, green Unaware where it is Unaware what it is actually Unaware how it is realized Unaware of its size The cloud is „something”
Misconcepts Always available Infinite resources High performance Minimal costs Green infrastructure Scalability, elasticity Accessible These must be relatively assessed
Real characteristics An economic model for resource –Provisioning –Management Realizes utility computing Elastic Increased availability and reliability Improved accessibility – ease of use Reduced cost
Cloud characteristics TechnologyBusinessSocial / LegalOther Elasticity / Scalability OutsourcingSecurityMulti-tenancy VirtualizationPay per useProvenanceEase of Use Agility & adaptability Resource utilization Privacy AvailabilityEnergy efficiency Data ManagementCost efficiency ReliabilityAccounting Programmability K. Jeffery and B. Neidecker-Lutz: „Advances in Clouds – Research in Future Cloud Computing”. Expert Group Report, 2012.
Relation to other areas K. Jeffery and B. Neidecker-Lutz: „Advances in Clouds – Research in Future Cloud Computing”. Expert Group Report, 2012.
An “official” definition A 'cloud' is an elastic execution environment of resources involving multiple stakeholders and providing a metered service at multiple granularities for a specified level of quality (of service). L. Schubert, K. Jeffery and B. Neidecker-Lutz: „The Future of Cloud Computing, Opportunities for European Cloud Computing beyond 2010”. Expert Group Report, 2010.
Another “official” definition Cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. This cloud model is composed of five essential characteristics, three service models, and four deployment models. P. Mell, T. Grance: “The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing”. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Special Publication 800-145, 2011
Essential characteristics On-demand self-service A consumer can unilaterally provision –computing capabilities –server time –network storage As needed, automatically without human interaction
Essential characteristics Broad network access Capabilities are available over the network –accessed through standard mechanisms –by heterogeneous client platforms mobile phones Tablets Laptops workstations
Essential characteristics Resource pooling The provider’s resources (storage, processing, memory, and network bandwidth) are pooled serve multiple consumers –multi-tenant model physical and virtual resources –dynamically assigned and reassigned according to consumer demand location independence –but may specify location at a higher level of abstraction
Essential characteristics Rapid elasticity Capabilities can be elastically provisioned and released –in some cases automatically –scale rapidly with demand appear to be unlimited
Essential characteristics Measured service control and optimize resource use by leveraging a metering capability Resource usage –Monitored –Controlled –Reported providing transparency for both the provider and consumer.
Service models: SaaS Software as a Service (SaaS) The provider’s applications running on a cloud infrastructure. Accessible from various client devices –thin client interface, such as a web browser –program interface The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud or even individual application capabilities
Service models: PaaS Platform as a Service (PaaS). Deploy onto the cloud infrastructure consumer-created or acquired applications –created using programming languages, libraries, services, and tools supported by the provider. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure but –has control over the deployed applications
Service models: IaaS Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Provision processing, storage, networks, and other fundamental computing resources –the consumer is able to deploy and run arbitrary software, operating systems and applications. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure but –has control over operating systems, storage, and deployed applications
Virtualization Simulation of the hardware and software environment in which other software runs Simulated environment = Virtual Machine (VM) Coupling between the physical layer and the guest OS = hypervisor, virtual machine monitor –Controls flow of instructions –Partitions resources –Isolates guest OSs –Provides the interface of a real physical hardware machine Guest OS + applications encapsulated = image
Virtualization Darryl Chantry: Mapping Applications to the Cloud. Microsoft Corporation, 2009
Deployment models Private cloud The cloud infrastructure is provisioned for exclusive use by a single organization –comprising multiple consumers (e.g., business units)
Private cloud L. Badger, T. Grance, R. Patt-Corner, J. Voas: “Cloud Computing Synopsis and Recommendations”. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Special Publication 800-146, 2012
Deployment models Community cloud The cloud infrastructure is provisioned for exclusive use by a specific community of consumers from organizations that have shared concerns (e.g., mission, security requirements, policy, and compliance considerations)
Community cloud L. Badger, T. Grance, R. Patt-Corner, J. Voas: “Cloud Computing Synopsis and Recommendations”. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Special Publication 800-146, 2012
Deployment models Public cloud The cloud infrastructure is provisioned for open use by the general public
Public cloud L. Badger, T. Grance, R. Patt-Corner, J. Voas: “Cloud Computing Synopsis and Recommendations”. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Special Publication 800-146, 2012
Deployment models Hybrid cloud The cloud infrastructure is a composition of two or more distinct cloud infrastructures (private, community, or public) –remain unique entities –bound together by standardized or proprietary technology that enables data and application portability