IDS vs IPS IDS = Intrusion detection system IPS = intrusion prevention system
IDS Monitors a system for Malicious activities. Policy violations not all policy violations are malicious.
IDS Categories Two categories of IDS: A network-based IDS monitors network data packets for malicious activity. Example: Snort, Comodo-firewall A host-based IDS analyzes any combination of system calls, applications logs, file modifications, and other host activities. Example: Tripwire, WinPatrol, Anti-Virus software
Passive IDS Logs the possible intrusion, and sends an alert. The alert could be an e-mail to SA staff; or posting the alert on a monitored console (or both). This is how Tripwire behaves.
Reactive IDS The reactive IDS, (aka IPS), would respond to an intrusion with a pre-configured defense strategy in real time. Snort, e-mail filters, and many anti-virus packages can be configured to be reactive.
Revised Taxonomy Revised Taxonomy for IDS vs IPS IDS is either Passive or Reactive. An IPS prevents intrusions.
IPS (Revised Taxonomy) Passwords Login Server (example: Kerberos) Firewalls : Consists of a combination of hardware and software. Access controls applied to hardware, software, and data. Physical security
IPS (Revised Taxonomy) In Summary, the IPS is a barrier. The IDS is needed when the IPS barrier is breached.
IPS : Firewall A combination of software and hardware used to implement security policies governing the network traffic between two or more networks. A firewall is a system used to enforce network traffic security policy.
IPS: Firewall System 1. Design the system 2. Acquire the hardware and software 3. Acquire training, documentation and support 4. Install and configure the system 5. Test the system 6. Maintain the system (sustainability cycle)
IPS : Other Systems Implement Access controls Physical security Login Server
IPS Access Controls Windows Professional provides access control lists. Unix/Linux has a simple access control system: User, Group, World + read, write, execute Princeton study showed that complex access controls lead to mis-configuration. Proper training is essential.
Intrusion Detection Data: Characterization Information Collect characterization information, CI. Characterization information must be monitored regularly
IDS : Characterization Info System logs File checksums System performance metrics provided by system monitoring applications Expected activities by users and applications
CI : System Logs System logs require 1) access controls 2) back-up 3) encrypted. Unix/Linux /var/log MS Windows systemroot\WINDOWS\System32\Config\*.evt Enable event logging and use the event viewer (eventvwr.msc)
System Log Files Log files can grow and use up space. Log files should periodically be backed-up then removed to make space for new log information.
Checksums Tripwire creates a database of checksums for a list of specified files (data, source, binary, etc). The data base of checksums acts as a baseline for comparison. Common checksum algorithms: MD5 SHA CRC
System Performance Metrics Server/computer system metrics Network activity metrics
System Resource CI Report the top resource users (examples: top, sysstat) CPU time usage Memory usage (example: free) Number of active processes (by all user-ids, including system ids) Number of active open files Number of files IO data transfer Disk space usage and free space IO transfer rate Other devices used by processes Login sessions Login attempts
Network Resource CI Connection attempts Connection duration Number of connections Source & destination of data packets Bandwidth usage (by user and total) Transfer rates Error counts
E-mail CI Number of sent messages Number of received messages Mail message sizes read/unread message count Consider logs of other possible communication devices like telephones and company issued cell phones.
System Security Logging & Auditing Documentation Document the characterization information to collect log files network CI computing system CI, etc. Document which events should produce an alert Document system and application updates Document roles and responsibilities of SA staff. Document a sustainability cycle Document an intrusion detection response
Intrusion Response Team Create a security response team Document the responsibilities of the intrusion response team members Document a contact list for the team Update the documentation regularly (sustainability cycle) Document what to do in an emergency.