Located above the kidneys like a hat for them.
Corticosteroid: › Hydrocortisone (cortisol)-helps control the body’s use of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates › Corticosterone-suppresses inflammatory reactions in the body and also affects the immune system › Aldosterone- regulates level of sodium and potassium in the body and helps maintain blood pressure and volume. › Androgenic steroids- converted elsewhere in the body to female hormones and male hormones; however, these steroid hormones are produced in much larger amounts by the ovaries in women and testes in men.
The hormones affect the body’s metabolism, the blood, and certain characteristics of the body. The adrenal glands effect the way energy is stored and food is used. It is also the first line of defense to emotional and physical stresses.
The adrenal cortex is regulated by negative feedback involving the hypothalamus and adrenocorticotropic hormone.
Adrenal cortex is devoted to production of corticosteroid and androgen hormones. ACTH from the anterior pituitary stimulates the release of steroids from the adrenal cortex.
Disorders occur when the adrenal gland doesn’t work properly. Disorders can occur and cause disorders depending on whether there is too many hormones or too little hormones produced.
Too many hormones: Adrenal gland tumors- cause too many hormones to be released Cushing’s syndrome- too much cortisol Pituitary tumors- can cause too many. Hyperaldosteronism- too much aldosterone. Too little hormones : Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH)- prevents gland from producing enough. Addison’s disease- doesn’t make enough aldosterone.
Surgery can be performed to remove tumors or even to remove one or both adrenal glands. Medication to stop the excess production of hormones. Replacement hormones.