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Theories of Leadership Trait Personal-Behavioral Situational Transformational.

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Presentation on theme: "Theories of Leadership Trait Personal-Behavioral Situational Transformational."— Presentation transcript:

1 Theories of Leadership Trait Personal-Behavioral Situational Transformational

2 Trait Theories Early trait theories identified: –Physical characteristics (height, appearance) –Personality characteristics (extrovert) –Skills and abilities (intelligence) –Social factors (interpersonal skills) Traits are distinctive characteristics that distinguish leaders from non-leaders.

3 Recent Results on Traits Some studies have identified these traits: –Drive –Motivation –Integrity –Self-confidence –Intelligence –Knowledge An AT&T study found these characteristics in managers who advanced: –oral communication skills –human relations skills –need or motive for advancement –resistance to stress –tolerance of uncertainty –energy –creativity After being rejected as a basis for identifying leaders, trait theories have had a revival.

4 Personal-Behavioral Theories University of Iowa (Kurt Lewin) –Leadership styles autocratic democratic laissez-faire –Measured quantity and quality of work and group satisfaction Boys’ Club test –laissez-faire underperformed –autocratic and democratic same quantity of work democratic - higher quality of work and group satisfaction Later tests disputed the differences found between autocratic and democratic

5 Personal-Behavioral Theories Tannenbaum and Schmidt –Continuum of leadership behaviors from boss-centered to subordinate-centered –Leaders need to consider: Their personal abilities and style Their subordinates’ preferences and tolerances The nature of the situation Appropriate leadership behavior is neither autocratic nor democratic, but can be somewhere in-between.

6 Personal-Behavioral Theories Job-centered –structure the jobs of subordinates –closely supervise –use incentives to spur production –determine standard rates of production Employee-centered –build effective work groups dedicated to high performance goals –focus on the human aspects of subordinates –specify and communicate objectives, but give considerable freedom in the means for their achievement University of Michigan (Rensis Likert) - Job-centered vs. employee-centered Employee-centered is better.

7 Personal-Behavioral Theories Initiating structure –structured their roles and the roles of subordinates toward achieving goals –actively involved in planning work activities, communicating pertinent information, and scheduling work Consideration –work atmosphere of mutual trust –respect for subordinates’ ideas –consideration of subordinates’ feelings –good two-way communication Ohio State Studies - two-dimensional model Consideration produced higher employee satisfaction.

8 Personal-Behavioral Theories Blake and Mouton - Managerial Grid ® –Concern for Production vs. Concern for People Better to be high on both dimensions Other studies suggest that high on both dimensions is not always best –Flexibility is necessary, depending on situation

9 Situational Theories Fiedler’s Contingency Model –Leader style is either task-oriented or relationship-oriented –Style depends on three situational factors leader-member relations task structure position power

10 Situational Theories quality requirement commitment requirement leader’s information problem structure commitment probability goal congruence subordinate conflict subordinate information Vroom/Yetton/Jago Leadership-Style Theory (called Normative Leadership Model in text) Leader style is either autocratic, consultative, or group Style depends on eight situational factors

11 Situational Theories Hersey and Blanchard - Situational Leadership Theory Leader style depends on the readiness of followers as defined by their: –Ability –Willingness Style takes the form of four leader behaviors –Telling –Selling –Participating –Delegating

12 Situational Theories Subordinate characteristics –personality traits –skills, abilities, and needs Context characteristics –the task itself –the work group –the organization’s authority structure Path-goal Theory Leader style is either directive, supportive, participative, or achievement-oriented Style depends on two types of situational factors

13 Transformational Leadership Three leader factors are important: –charisma –individualized consideration delegating paying attention to followers’ needs treating followers with respect –intellectual stimulation offering new ideas to stimulate followers encouraging followers to think and act creatively

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