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© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–0 What Is Leadership? Leadership The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals. Management Use of authority inherent in designated formal rank to obtain compliance from organizational members.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–1 Leadership Theories 1.Trait Theories that consider personality, social, physical, or intellectual traits. (leaders are born, not trained) 2.Behavior Theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from nonleaders. (Leadership traits can be taught.) 3.Contingency Theories that situational factors impact leadership effectiveness.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–2 Trait Theories Leadership Traits: Ambition and energy The desire to lead Honest and integrity Self-confidence Intelligence High self-monitoring Job-relevant knowledge
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–3 Trait Theories Limitations : No universal traits found that predict leadership in all situations. Traits predict behavior better in “weak” than “strong” situations. Unclear evidence of the cause and effect of relationship of leadership and traits. Better predictor of the appearance of leadership than distinguishing effective and ineffective leaders.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–4 Behavioral Theories Ohio State Studies Initiating Structure Consideration University of Michigan Production Oriented Employee Oriented Scandinavian Studies Development Oriented
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–5 The Managerial Grid (Blake and Mouton) E X H I B I T 11–1
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–6 Contingency Theories 1.Fiedler’s Contingency Model 2.Cognitive Resource Theory 3.Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) Questionnaire 4.Hershey and Blanchard Situational Leadership 5.Leader Member Exchange Theory 6.Path Goal Theory 7.Leader Participation Theory
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–7 Examples 1.Define it using plain (not textbook) language 2.Come up with 2 examples of this type of leadership 3.What are the problems / holes in this theory? 4.Answer any questions
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–8 Contingency Theories Fiedler’s Contingency Model The theory that effective groups depend on a proper match between a leader’s style of interacting with subordinates and the degree to which the situation gives control and influence to the leader. Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) Questionnaire An instrument that purports to measure whether a person is task- or relationship-oriented.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–9 Fiedler’s Model: Defining the Situation Leader-Member Relations The degree of confidence, trust, and respect subordinates have in their leader. Position Power Influence derived from one’s formal structural position in the organization; includes power to hire, fire, discipline, promote, and give salary increases. Task Structure The degree to which the job assignments are procedurized.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–10 Cognitive Resource Theory Research Support : Less intelligent individuals perform better in leadership roles under high stress than do more intelligent individuals. Less experienced people perform better in leadership roles under low stress than do more experienced people. Research Support : Less intelligent individuals perform better in leadership roles under high stress than do more intelligent individuals. Less experienced people perform better in leadership roles under low stress than do more experienced people. Cognitive Resource Theory A theory of leadership that states that stress can unfavorably affect a situation and that intelligence and experience can lessen the influence of stress on the leader.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–11 Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory Situational Leadership Theory (SLT) A contingency theory that focuses on followers’ readiness. Leader: decreasing need for support and supervision Follower readiness: ability and willingness Unable and Unwilling Unable but Willing Able and Willing Directive High Task and Relationship Orientations Supportive Participative Able and Unwilling Monitoring
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–12 Leadership Styles and Follower Readiness (Hersey and Blanchard) Willing Unwilling Able UnableDirective High Task and Relationship Orientations Supportive Participative Monitoring Follower Readiness Leadership Styles
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–13 Leader–Member Exchange Theory Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory Leaders create in-groups and out-groups, and subordinates with in-group status will have higher performance ratings, less turnover, and greater job satisfaction.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–14 Path-Goal Theory The theory that it is the leader’s job to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide them the necessary direction and/or support to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall objectives of the group or organization.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–15 Leader-Participation Model Leader-Participation Model (Vroom and Yetton) A leadership theory that provides a set of rules to determine the form and amount of participative decision making in different situations.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.11–16 Contingency Variables in the Revised Leader-Participation Model E X H I B I T 11–5 1.Importance of the decision 2.Importance of obtaining follower commitment to the decision 3.Whether the leader has sufficient information to make a good decision 4.How well structured the problem is 5.Whether an autocratic decision would receive follower commitment 6.Whether followers “buy into” the organization’s goals 7.Whether there is likely to be conflict among followers over solution alternatives 8.Whether followers have the necessary information to make a good decision 9.Time constraints on the leader that may limit follower involvement 10.Whether costs to bring geographically dispersed members together is justified 11.Importance to the leader of minimizing the time it takes to make the decision 12.Importance of using participation as a tool for developing follower decision skills
What Is Leadership? Leadership
What Is Leadership? Leadership Management
Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
Basic Approaches to Leadership Pertemuan 10 Matakuliah: G0292/Organizational Behavior Tahun: 2007 Adapted from: ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR S T E P H E N P.
Leadership Ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals I) Trait Theories II) Behavioral Theories III) Contingency Theories.
Chapter 11: Basic Approaches to Leadership
11 Chapter Leadership and Trust Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education.
12 Chapter Leadership and Trust Copyright ©2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12-1.
© 2005 Prentice-Hall 10-1 Leadership and Creating Trust Chapter 10 Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 8/e Stephen P. Robbins.
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR S T E P H E N P. R O B B I N S E L E V E N T H E D I T I O N W W W. P R E N H A L L. C O M / R O B B I N S © 2005 Prentice Hall.
Chapter Learning Objectives
Theories of Leadership Trait Personal-Behavioral Situational Transformational.
Organizational Behavior Lecture 16 Dr. Amna Yousaf PhD (HRM) University of Twente, the Netherlands.
DOING THINGS RIGHT OR DOING THE RIGHT THING?&WINNING HEARTS&MINDS! Chapter 8&9.
©Prentice Hall, 2001Chapter 111 Leadership and Trust.
Basic Approaches to Leadership
Leading Unit-7. After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1.Define Leading/leadership 2.Describe elements of leadership 3.Theories of Leadership.
© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Basic Approaches to Leadership Chapter TWELVE.
8 th edition Steven P. Robbins Mary Coulter. Page 278Slide 2 Managers Versus Leaders Managers Are appointed (assigned) to their position. Can influence.
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