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5205 – IT Service Delivery and Support

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1 5205 – IT Service Delivery and Support
Virtual Machine 5205 – IT Service Delivery and Support Darshana Shardha Leo Serrano Kalyani Prabhakar

2 What is virtualization
Virtualization is a software technology Divides a physical resource into multiple virtual resources Consolidates physical resources Separates Operating systems from hardware Enables multiple operating systems and applications to share the resources of a single physical machine Creates a virtual environment where a physical resource is divided into multiple resources Partitions one physical server into multiple virtual servers or machines OS is not connected to the hardware it is installed on … the software creates a layer on top of the hardware upon which one can install instances of OSs. In the past, when OS was installed in a computer, it got connected to the hardware Device drivers got linked to the hardware migration was a tedious, long process Virtualization has made the deployment of VMs a simple process Moving a VM around is just like moving a document, a picture file Consolidates physical resources by making it possible to have one high-power server running different operating systems Each VM interact independently with other devices, applications, data and users as though it were a separate physical resource Different VMs can run on different operating systems and multiple applications while sharing the resources of a single physical computer Each VM is isolated from each other, if one crashes, it does not affect the others

3 Types of Virtualization
Server Virtualization One physical server is partitioned into smaller virtual servers Resources of physical server are hidden from users Storage Virtualization Physical storage from multiple network storage devices are virtualized Network Virtualization Available resources in a network are combined by splitting the available bandwidth into independent channels Each channel can be assigned or reassigned to a device in real time

4 History In 1970s, IBM introduced virtualization technology
Used the technology to partition mainframe systems into logical, separate virtual machines that could run multiple applications and processes at the same time Examples of the current virtualization solutions: VMWare, Citrix, Microsoft, IBM, RedHat

5 Hypervisor Layer of abstraction between the hardware and guest operating systems Called Virtual Machine Manager A resource manager that monitors and manages sharing of processing power and memory

6 Type II–Hosted Hypervisor
Types of Hypervisor Type I – Bare Metal Type II–Hosted Hypervisor OS1 OS2 OS3 OS4 OS1 OS2 OS3 OS4 Hypervisor Hypervisor Host Hardware Operating System Host Hardware Hypervisor installed directly onto the hardware Host OS is installed onto the physical hardware Instances of OS installed onto the hypervisor Hypervisor is the second layer installed onto the host OS Needs a management console Host OS provides the management functions

7 Benefits Reduced cost (efficiency)and maintenance is easier
increase efficiency and decreased cost in IT operation Server hardware costs decrease for both server builds and server maintenance Physical footprint of servers may decrease Less heat buildup Operating costs reduced OSs can share processing capacity and storage space Faster redeployment and easier backup strategy Better testing A single host can have multiple versions of the same OS, or even difference OSs, to facilitate testing Ease of migration and ease of growth Management tasks, such as securing and updating desktops is centralized through virtualization management functions. darshana

8 Limitations Host represents a potential single point of failure
impact larger in both scope and size Data leakage Data could leak if memory is not released and allocated in controlled manner Inadequate configuration or exploits of vulnerabilities could have a very big impact High risk in physical fault requires high availability/redundancy Performance concerns Application compatibility Applications that require a lot of memory, processing power or input/output are not suitable for virtual implementation Bandwidth consumption is much higher due to high VM density on a single physical server. darshana

9 Security Risks Since the virtualization host is an OS in itself, the performance risks associated with any OS apply to virtualized hosts servicing other guest servers. The host providing a receptacle for multiple guest servers represents a single point of failure for the guest OSs residing on that host. Hosts usually have the capability to reallocate memory among guests. Assurance is needed that the memory released by the first guest using that storage is not disclosing content to the receiving guest servers using those addresses. darshana 1. Patching, antivirus, limited services, logging, appropriate permissions and other configuration settings that represent a secure configuration for any server gain importance on a host carrying multiple guest servers. Access Control is more crucial because of the single point of failure. 2. Should the host become compromised, the resources needed by the guests can become unavailable. Physical and logical access controls over hosts, including local and remote, are paramount.

10 ...Security Risks (cont) Architectural vulnerability
The layer of abstraction between the physical hardware and the virtualised systems running the IT services is a potential target of attack. Software vulnerability The most important software in a virtual IT system is the hypervisor. Any security vulnerability in the hypervisor software will put VMs at risk of failure. Configuration risks Due to the ease of cloning and copying images, a new infrastructure can be deployed very easily in a virtual environment. This introduces configuration drift; as a result, controlling and accounting for the rapidly deployed environments becomes a critical task.

11 How to address the risks
Strong physical and logical access controls Sound configuration management practices and system hardening Appropriate network segregation Strong change management practices

12 IT Audit of Virtual Environment
Auditing a VM server is similar to auditing a physical server. The same principles, best practices, and basic audit approaches can be used Things to keep in mind: Some VM tools are proprietary and unique to VMs, VM creation takes minutes or even seconds,

13 IT Audit of Virtual Environment
The IT auditor should gain an adequate understanding of the infrastructure and how controls are embedded, or overlaid upon, the partitions and server. Evaluate the completeness of the VM documentation: Change controls, and logs. Ensure that you know how to determine completeness of log data in regards to VMs. Are the partitions different operating systems? Are the partitions on a single server or across servers? What partitions exist for which environments on which boxes (i.e., a network map)? Are there controls over each partition similar to those expected for a server? Are there controls for specific users that limit access and read/write capabilities? Does a standard naming convention exist, and, if so, what is it—for server, partition, library/folder names? These, of course, help IT auditors perform their duties. What controls are in place for deploying multiple copies of software (maybe thousands!) The understanding of the VM environment and subsequent evaluation and testing of controls will likely focus on the network map. The IT auditor should determine where in the VM world the following types of systems are located, if they exist: Systems development Systems testing (staging or sandbox environment) Production systems (the larger the company, the more of these will exist) Regional business unit servers (if applicable)

14 IT Audit of Virtual Environment
The auditor should be familiar with the best practices as a benchmark for effective control. They should use these best practices as a baseline and ensure settings have not been altered since the VM’s creation. Communication methods between servers and servers and servers and outside devices should be carefully configured. Check for the use of virtual firewalls and virtualized intrusion detection. Verify the security and location of the management console.

15 Future of VMs Network as a Service (Naas)
Replacement of Desktops with thin clients running on centralized servers. Enhanced VM mobility and live migration Private cloud computing Software defined everything LEO

16 Conclusion What this means to you? Risk Example
The bottom line is that VM technology will be a staple of IT in business for years to come and the IT auditor needs to be able to evaluate the process of creating, deploying, managing and making changes to virtual machines.

17 References: Machine-Technology.aspx

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