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Eating Disorders. Do you think you might have an eating disorder? All Students 9.5% Males 5.0% Females11.6%

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Presentation on theme: "Eating Disorders. Do you think you might have an eating disorder? All Students 9.5% Males 5.0% Females11.6%"— Presentation transcript:

1 Eating Disorders

2 Do you think you might have an eating disorder? All Students 9.5% Males 5.0% Females11.6%

3 Do you know someone who you think has an eating disorder? All Students68.3% Males70.0% Females67.4% 90% are female

4 Eating Disorders For those of you who know someone with an eating disorder: What makes you think he or she has one? What do they do? Why do they do it?

5 Eating Disorders Eating disorders involve serious disturbances in eating behaviors, such as extreme and unhealthy reduction of food intake or severe overeating, as well as feelings of distress or extreme concern about body shape or weight - National Institute of Mental Health, 2004

6 Symptoms of Anorexia Nervosa Resistance to maintaining body weight at or above normal for height and age Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, even though underweight Disturbance in body image, undue influence of weight and shape on self-esteem, denial of seriousness of low body weight Lifetime prevalence among females: 0.5-3.7%

7 Anorexia – Related Behaviors Obsessed with the process of eating Repeatedly checking body weight Exercising compulsively May involve compensatory behaviors (purging)

8 Symptoms of Bulimia Nervosa Recurrent episodes of binge eating and a sense of lack of control during binge episodes Recurrent compensatory behavior to prevent weight gain (purging, fasting, or excessive exercise) Binging and compensatory behaviors both occur at least 2x/week for 3 months Lifetime prevalence among females: 1.1-4.2%

9 Symptoms of Binge Eating Do at least 3 of the following 5 things: Eat much faster than normal Eat until uncomfortably full Eat large amounts when not hungry Eat alone due to embarrassment over amount Feel depressed or guilty after eating Binge eating = bulimia without the purging 2-5% of Americans in a 6 month period

10 Body Weight Patterns Anorexia nervosa – underweight Bulimia Nervosa – normal weight Binge eating – over weight

11 Associated Factors Beauty standards 76% of women who diet do so for cosmetic rather than health reasons

12 Conformity or Deviance? Are people with anorexia conforming to, or deviating from cultural expectations? How about binge eaters and bulimics?

13 Do you suffer from depression? All Students27.0% Males15.0% Females32.6%

14 Do you suffer from anxiety? All Students46.0% Males25.0% Females55.8% Statistically Significant

15 Eating Disorders & Depression % of class who think they have an eating disorder Depression-Yes29.4% Depression-No2.2% very statistically significant

16 Eating Disorders & Anxiety % of class who think they have an eating disorder Anxiety –Yes20.7% Anxiety – No0.0% very statistically significant

17 Primary and Secondary Deviance Primary deviance Multiple causes Often excused without lasting consequence Secondary Deviance – deviance that results from having been labeled deviant Internalization Reduced opportunities

18 Becoming “Anorexic/Bulimic” When the desire to be thin co-occurs with initial failure at dieting, experimentation with extreme dieting methods is likely When weight loss from extreme dieting is approved by others, the dieting is reinforced

19 Labeling the Behavior Extreme dieting is initially excused as “primary deviance” How? Over time, weight loss and/or binge eating bring negative public attention People become “concerned,” stop praising appearance, and eating behaviors The secret is out - the labeling process begins

20 Labeling and Help Seeking “People with eating disorders often do not recognize or admit that they are ill. As a result they may strongly resist getting and staying in treatment” – NIMH, 2004 Labeling can facilitate help-seeking Accepting the problem (self-labeling) legitimizes the need for help & treatment Help-seeking is most likely if the problem is viewed in “medical” rather than “judgmental” terms

21 Treatment for Eating Disorders Medical Intervention For anorexics, restore weight to normal range Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Psychological disturbances (distorted body image, low self-esteem), may include families Medication Therapy Anti-depressants, anti-anxiety

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