Presentation on theme: "Advanced Metering Infrastructure"— Presentation transcript:
1 Advanced Metering Infrastructure by: Michael Brandt
2 Presentation Overview What is AMI?Why should AMI be implemented?What issues face AMI?
3 Background: What is the Smart Grid? Monitors supply and demand of electricity for usersPermits users to use more energy when it costs less and to use less energy when it costs more
4 Smart Grid Background Continued Two different conceptsTransmission level grid that allows utilities to operate more efficientlyThe interface between the utility and the customer
5 Technologies to Implement the Smart Grid There are manyVisualizing Energy Resources Dynamically on Earth (“VERDE”)Distributed generationMost important two here:1. Smart Metering2. Advanced Metering Infrastructure (“AMI”)
6 1. Smart Metering What are complex rates? A very broad concept Any rate that goes beyond a simple total monthly billing for total electricity consumptionA very broad conceptCombo of metering- related technologies systematically configured to support complex rates
7 Examples of Complex Rates Time of use (TOU) ratesDemand ratesDynamic or peak-sensitive ratesTOU rates are not dynamic because they do not vary based upon real-time conditions. - book p. 990The epitome of dynamic rates would be real-time pricing (RTP); we will get there eventually.
8 More on Smart MeteringTraditional meters are manually read on a monthly basis; smart meters are interval metersAllow measurement of usage over much shorter intervalsMore precise measurement provides greater flexibility and efficiencyProliferation almost tripled from 2006 to 2008, to 19M smart metersStatistic from book, p. 991
9 2. Advanced Metering Infrastructure (“AMI”) What is it?Smart meters at the consumer’s locationFixed communication networks between consumers and service providersData reception and management systems that make the info available to the service provider (meter data management system or “MDMS”)MDMS: software applications that receive and store meter data and perform other functionsWhy all the background on smart metering? Because smart metering is a key component of advanced metering infrastructure or AMI.The communication network between the consumers and the service providers is called the AMI host system.
10 AMI Definition Two characteristics Fixed network systems Capable of supporting complex rates
11 What does AMI do?Enables a two-way flow of information between consumers and utilitiesEnables proliferation of demand responseAllows service provider to control consumers’ electricity usage (load control)Facilitates Smart Grid deployment and distributed generationA lot of this sounds like what the smart grid does and for good reason; AMI is the backbone that will enable the smart grid to do what its expected to do.
14 Gathering Meter Data for Complex Rates There are several types of advanced metering, but not all qualify as AMIStandalone meter read locallyStandalone meter read remotely over public infrastructureMeter with short-distance communication upgraded to fixed networkPrivate fixed network AMI system
15 Implementing AMI Fixed Networks OptionsFixed Radio Frequency (RF)Power Line Communication (PLC)Broadband Over Power Line (BPL)Public NetworksE.g., landline, cellular, paging, etc.Choice dictated byBenefit to utilityNumber of customers that will take advantage of dynamic pricingFirst three are the most popular
16 Data Rate Classes Low bandwidth Mesh networks Communications from each meter flow through several others on the way to the MDMSFull broadband network connectionsMore bandwidth equals higher costBut also more capabilityAllows for unforeseen value sources
17 Why implement AMI?Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act section 111(d) mandateAs amended by § 1252 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005Each utility must offer each class of customers a time-based rate scheduleAnd must provide these rates and meter them for those who request
18 Why implement AMI?Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act section 111(d) mandateRegulators of regulated utilities and unregulated utilities required to “consider and determine” whether smart metering is appropriateIf so, these entities must set smart metering standards for the utilities
19 Determining If Smart Metering Is Appropriate Cost-benefit analysisMust consider benefits forCustomersAND utilitiesTwo considerationsMeteringPrograms that allow customers to lessen electricity useHow do utility regulatory boards and non-regulated utilities determine if smart metering is appropriate for their jurisdictions?
20 Benefit: Demand Response EPAct of 2005: US’s policy is to encourage demand responseAMI allows consumers to easily take advantage of dynamic pricing programsUtility provides info on electricity price changes to consumers so they may modify their usageAllows for peak shaving: reducing electrical demand at times when electricity is most costly to produceAMI provides info that incentivizes customers to reduce usage and automates that process, requiring minimal consumer effort
21 Conventional Methods of Providing Price Info ExamplesNewspaperAudio broadcast radioTVFaxTelephoneA fixed network AMI solution would provide this info to many consumers with comparatively less difficulty
22 Another Benefit: Load Control Home Area NetworksHomes can respond to electricity supply in order to maximize efficiency through user-set profilesUtilities can alter supply of electricity to homes when demand is expected to spike
23 AMI ProliferationWhich electricity generating entities have done the most?Electric cooperatives have highest rate at 13%Investor-owned utilities: close to 6%AMI accounts for 4.7% or 6.7M of all US electricity usersNumber of installed meters projected to grow to 52M by 2012
25 EPRI’s Stated AMI Issues Cost-benefit assessmentSecurityInteroperability and standard interfacesAMI specificationsAMI and demand response networksI’m going to touch on only a selected few of these, particularly the issues that I find to be most pressing.
26 Cost Itemization Hardware and software Installation costs Meter data managementProject managementIT integration
28 Cost Estimates Hardware and software costs have decreased over time Over the last 10 years, they are 80% of what they were: hardware costs were $76/meter on averageCapital costs for communications infrastructureAbout $125-$150/meterAdding demand response capability increases costs by another $100-$350/site
29 Security Issues Privacy Exposure to cyber terrorism Can determine if someone is homeCan determine usage patternsExposure to cyber terrorism
30 U of I Security Lab Threat Taxonomy Curious eavesdroppersMotivated eavesdroppersUnethical customersOverly intrusive meter data management agencyActive attackersPublicity seekers
31 StandardizationHow do you ensure that everything can communicate in an AMI system?Communication protocols amongstLoad control devices in HANsFixed networks