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Introduction to Hospitality, 6e

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1 Introduction to Hospitality, 6e
and Introduction to Hospitality Management, 4e John R. Walker Organizing Chapter 16

2 The Purpose of Organizing
The purpose of organizing is to get a job done efficiently & effectively by completing these tasks: Dividing work. Assigning tasks. Coordinating diverse organizational tasks. Clustering jobs into units. Establishing relationships. Establishing formal lines of authority. Allocate & deploy organizational resources.

3 The Purpose of Organizing
Organization refers to the arrangement of activities so that they systematically contribute to goal accomplishment. No one person can do all the things necessary for a hospitality organization to be successful.

4 Defining Organizational Structure
An organizational structure is like a skeleton in that it lends support to the various departments in an organization. It provides the total framework by which job tasks are divided, grouped, & coordinated. See next slide.

5 The New “Upside-Down” Organizational Chart Figure 16-1

6 Work Specialization/ Division of Labor
Work specialization is the extent to which jobs in an organization are divided into separate tasks. One person does not do the entire job. Instead, it is broken down into steps & a different person completes each step.

7 Departmentalization Once jobs have been divided up by work specialization, they have to be grouped back together so that the common tasks can be coordinated (departmentalization). Methods of departmentalizing: By function By product By guest need By territory Any combination of the above

8 Organizational Chart for a Theme Park Figure 16-2

9 Authority & Responsibility
Authority is closely associated with chain of command because it gives the right to managers to exercise their power in a given situation. Authority should be commensurate with responsibility.

10 Chain of Command Outlines those with authority from the top down:
BOD CEO Vice-president The chain of command is helpful for associates who have questions or need advice because they will know whom to ask. They also know to whom they are responsible for their work performance.

11 Increasing Span of Control
Number of employees a supervisor can efficiently manage. The answer used to be between 8 & 12. Now, however, the answer is likely to be 12 to 18! Factors: Type of work Skill level of employee Level of training Technology available Leadership style Management experience

12 Empowerment Giving employees a degree of decision-making authority.
Allows employees to be flexible when dealing with difficult situations that do not necessarily require management attention. Increase in guest satisfaction.

13 Centralization vs. Decentralization
Some organizations make most of the decisions at the corporate office & inform unit managers of them. This process is called centralization. Top managers make the organization’s key decisions with little/no input from subordinates. Decentralized organizations make most of the decisions at the unit level or with input from associates.

14 Centralization versus Decentralization in an Organization Figure 16-4

15 Organizational Design Decisions
Coordination of Activities: Departments need to communicate quickly & often to keep up with guest requests. Contingency Planning: Contingency factors deal with what hospitality organizations refer to as the what-ifs.

16 Contemporary Organizational Designs
The first is a work team structure. Either the complete organization or a part of it is made up of teams that perform the duties necessary to delight the guest.

17 Contemporary Organizational Designs
There are two main types of work teams: integrated and self-managed. Integrated work teams are given a number of tasks by the manager, and the team gives specific assignments to members. Self-managed work teams are assigned a goal, and the team plans, organizes, leads, and controls to achieve the goal.

18 Matrix & Project Structures
The matrix structure is an organizational structure that assigns specialists from different departments to work on a project. For example, a new attraction, restaurant, or hotel opening. Project structures are those in which employees continuously work on projects. Unlike a matrix structure, members of a project do not return to their departments after project completion. They go on to the next project.

19 Independent Business Units
Encourages departments to not only delight the guest but also to watch the money all the way to the bottom line. In other words, the IBU becomes its own independent business & makes decisions accordingly with little or no need to get approval for routine operational decisions.

20 Boundaryless Organizations
An organization whose design is not defined by, or limited to, the horizontal, vertical, or external boundaries imposed by a predefined structure. Seeks to eliminate the chain of command, to have appropriate spans of control, & to replace departments with empowered teams.

21 The Four Types of Contemporary Organizational Designs Figure 16-5

22 Team & Employee Involvement
Teams are task-oriented work groups; they can either be formally appointed or may evolve in-formally. Teams are great for doing work that is complex, interrelated, or of a volume larger than one person can handle.

23 Team & Employee Involvement
Why are some groups more successful than others? Why does a team of mediocre players sometimes beat a team of superior players? Why & how this happens is called group dynamics & includes: The abilities of the group’s members. The size of the group. The level of conflict. The internal pressures on members to conform to the group’s norms.

24 How Companies Use Teams
One way is to structure the organization into teams from the start. Through TQM programs that involve associates working in teams to constantly improve the guest experience. Self-managed teams make decisions that were once made by managers. This saves managers time, allowing them to concentrate on more important things.

25 How to Build Productive Teams
Productive teams are built by: Giving associates the authority, responsibility, & encouragement to come together to work on guest-related improvements. Leadership. Setting goals & objectives. Interaction.

26 Job Rotation, Enlargement & Enrichment
Job Rotation: creates interest & assists in developing associates to take on additional responsibilities. Job Enlargement: increases the scope of the associates’ work. Job Enrichment: adds some planning & evaluating responsibilities to a position. It gives associates greater control over their work.

27 Trends Computerized scheduling programs save the organizer time & limit the error margin for being over- or understaffed. The fact that recipes are just a click away on the Internet helps speed the organizational process tremendously. The new dynamic of multitasking has caused a drastic change in the organizational chart. A new trend following the September 11, 2001, tragedy is to decentralize organizations. Reduced occupancies at most hotels have led to a reduction in staff & managerial positions. This in turn has led to more decentralized organizations with fewer levels of management.

28 Trends Another trend is the outsourcing of some hospitality jobs like accounting, which can be done in India and the Philippines for a much lower cost. There is a trend of utilizing outsourced employees for some departments such as housekeeping. This reduces payroll and benefits are not offered as these workers are not actually hotel employees..

29 The End

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