Presentation on theme: "HIV/AIDS. STATICS The first AIDS case in India was detected in 1986 and since then HIV infection has been reported in all states and union territories."— Presentation transcript:
STATICS The first AIDS case in India was detected in 1986 and since then HIV infection has been reported in all states and union territories India have approximately 2.5 million people infected with HIV(Rajasthan-76316). National adult HIV prevalence, or the number of adults living with HIV as a proportion of the total population, is estimated 0.31% (Rajasthan-0.19%).
Age wise distribution of HIV infection: <15 years – 4.36% 15-49 years – 82.41% 50+ - 13.23% HIV hits the most productive age group of country. The key risk groups are High Risk Groups (HRG) –Female Sex Workers (FSW) –Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) –Transgender (TG) –Injecting Drug Users (IDU) Bridge Populations –Truckers –Migrants
Is HIV and AIDS the same thing? HIV Human Immunodeficiency virus A specific type of virus (a retrovirus) HIV invades the helper T cells to replicate itself. No Cure AIDS Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome HIV is the virus that causes AIDS Disease limits the body’s ability to fight infection A person with AIDS has a very weak immune system No Cure
How is HIV/AIDS transmitted? 1.Sexual transmission 2.Blood and blood products 3.Vertical transmission
Blood and blood products IV drug use (sharing needles) Transfusions Other (knives)
Vertical transmission During pregnancy During birth Breastfeeding
Diagnostic Tests Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/Enzyme Immunoassay (ELISA/EIA) Radio Immunoprecipitation Assay/Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Assay (RIP/IFA) Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Western Blot Confirmatory test
Four stages of HIV STAGE 1-Primary Last for one to six weeks after infection No symptoms at all Infected person can infect other people Stage 2-Asymptomatic Lasts for an average of ten years This stage is free from symptoms There may be swollen glands HIV antibodies are detectable in the blood Stage 3-Symptomatic The symptoms are mild The immune system deteriorates Emergence of opportunistic infections and cancers Stage 4-HIV->AIDS The immune system weakens The illnesses become more severe leading to an AIDS diagnosis
Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) The aim of ART in general is to prolong and improve the quality of life by maintaining maximal suppression of HIV replication for as long as possible. Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase inhibitors –AZT (Zidovudine) Non-Nucleoside Transcriptase inhibitors –Viramune (Nevirapine) Protease inhibitors –Norvir (Ritonavir)
ABC Approach The ABC Approach to prevent sexual transmission of HIV Abstain Be faithful (Monogamous relationship) Protected sex (Use a Condom)
Exposure to infected blood Blood supplies Screening of blood products reduces the risk of transmission Accidents Strategy of universal precautions Injections and syringes A needle or syringe used for injection should never be shared with others.
Prevent mother-to-child- transmission Preventing HIV infection among prospective parents Avoiding unwanted pregnancies among HIV positive women Preventing the transmission of HIV from HIV positive mothers to their infants during pregnancy, labour, delivery and breastfeeding.