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Skinner: Radical Behaviorism Bandura, Ellis, Beck Meicheanbaum

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Presentation on theme: "Skinner: Radical Behaviorism Bandura, Ellis, Beck Meicheanbaum"— Presentation transcript:

1 Skinner: Radical Behaviorism Bandura, Ellis, Beck Meicheanbaum
Behavior and Cognitive Behavior Therapy Skinner: Radical Behaviorism Bandura, Ellis, Beck Meicheanbaum

2 Skinner: Radical Behaviorism
Placed primary emphasis in the role of the environment in producing behavior Applied learning principles to psychology Developed theory primarily working with rats in an experimental laboratory Books 1948 Walden Two 1953 Science and Human Behavior 1971 Beyond Freedom and Dignity

3 Behavior/ Cognitive Behavior Theory
Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Social Learning Approach Cognitive Interventios

4 Classical Conditioning
If you pair a conditioned stimulus to a natural stimulus, after time, the conditioned stimulus produces the same response as the natural one: Learning by association Pavlov discovery (1900) Meat (us) >> Salivation (ur) Bell (cs)>>Meat (us) >>Salivation (ur) Bell (cs) >> Salivation (cr) Bell (cs) >> Extinguished response

5 Wolpe: 1950 Exam (us)>>>Anxiety (ur)
Applied classical conditioning to treat anxiety by pairing stimulus that causes anxiety (taking an exam) with a state of relaxation, to break the connection between the stimulus and the anxious response Exam (us)>>>Anxiety (ur) Relaxation> Images Exam>Anxiety>Relaxation (cs) (us) (ur) (cr) Images Exam (us)>>> Relaxation (cr) Real Exam (us)>>> Relaxation (cr)

6 Operant Conditioning Focuses on actions that operate on the environment to produce consequence If the environmental change brought about by the behavior is reinforcing, probabilities that the behavior will be repeated increase If the environmental changes produce no reinforcement or a punishment, probabilities that the behavior will be repeated decrease

7 Environmental Consequences
Reinforcement Increases the behavior Positive R Adds a pleasant consequence Negative R Eliminates aversive stimulus Punishment Decreases the behavior Adds an aversive consequence Take away a positive stimulus Lack of consequence Decreases behavior

8 Bandura: Social Learning Approach
Psychological functions involve a reciprocal interaction between: Environment <><><> Behavior <> <> <> <> <> Cognitive Process <>

9 Cognitive Behavior Therapy
Emphasizes cognitive processes and private events (such as client’s self-talk) as mediators of behavior change Rational Emotive Therapy Ellis Cognitive Therapy Beck Cognitive Behavior Modification Meichenbaum

10 Behavior Therapy Today 1/2
Person is product and producer of his/her environment Uses a systematic and structured approach to counseling Emphasizes changing overt behaviors and solving specific problems versus gaining insight

11 Behavior Therapy Today
Clients are expected to assume an active role in therapy Emphasizes the assessment of effectiveness of interventions Applied Behavioral Analyses: assessment of environmental contingencies of behaviors

12 Applied Behavioral Analysis: Functional Assessment Model
Examine the antecedents and consequences of problem behaviors Conduct a functional assessment using interviews and direct observations (e.g. keeping a diary) to identify the internal\external conditions contributing to the behavior of interest

13 Applied Behavioral Analysis: Functional Assessment Model
Facilitate Behavioral Change Behavioral treatments are devised to replace problem behavior(s) with more adaptive behavior(s) using reinforcement and extinction strategies

14 Behaviorism: Therapy Techniques 1/3
Systematic Desensitization Relaxation training Anxiety hierarchy Aversive Counter Conditioning Exposure Techniques In vivo desensitization Flooding (in vivo, imaginary) Modeling

15 Behaviorism: Therapy Techniques 2/3
Assertiveness Training Information Examination of beliefs and self-talk Role playing Behavioral rehearsal

16 Behaviorism: Therapy Techniques 3/3
Behavioral Modification Programs Reinforcement Token economy Extinction Time out, loose privileges, punishment Stimulus control Changing environmental antecedents

17 Behaviorism: Therapy Techniques 3/3
Self Management Programs – active coping behaviors Identify goal Express goal in behavioral terms Self Monitoring- Behavioral assessment Develop plan for change that includes Self-Reinforcements Evaluation of action plan - results

18 Cognitive Behavior Theory
Distressing emotions are typically the result of maladaptive thinking Mental disorder seen as a disorder of thinking in which a client distorts reality, including: Specific misconceptions Unrealistic expectations Maladaptive attributes

19 Cognitive Behavior Theory
Therapy’ aims are to identify and change Faulty patterns of thinking Faulty premises and attitudes

20 Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: (REBT) Albert Ellis
Stresses thinking, judging, deciding, analyzing, and doing Cognitions <> Emotions <>Behaviors have a reciprocal cause-and-effect relationship Teaches that our emotions stem mainly from our beliefs, evaluations, interpretations, and reactions to life situations

21 RET: Human Nature We are born with a potential for both rational and irrational thinking We have the biological and cultural tendency to think crookedly and to needlessly disturb ourselves We learn and invent disturbing beliefs and keep ourselves disturbed through our self-talk We have the capacity to change our cognitive, emotive, and behavioral processes

22 RET: The ABC Theory

23 RET: Therapy Process Therapy is seen as an educational process
Clients learn To identify and dispute irrational beliefs that are maintained by self-indoctrination To replace ineffective ways of thinking with effective and rational cognitions To stop absolutistic thinking, blaming, and repeating false beliefs

24 Aaron Beck’s Cognitive Therapy (CT)
Insight-focused therapy Emphasizes changing negative thoughts and maladaptive beliefs

25 Aaron Beck’s Cognitive Therapy (CT)
Theoretical Assumptions People’s internal communications are accessible to introspection Clients’ beliefs have highly personal meanings These meanings can be discovered by the client rather than being taught or interpreted by the therapist

26 Beck’s Cognitive Therapy 1/2
Basic theory: To understand the nature of an emotional episode or disturbance it is essential to focus on the cognitive content of an individual’s reaction to the upsetting event or stream of thoughts Automatic thoughts: personalized notions that are triggered by particular stimuli that lead to emotional responses

27 Beck’s Cognitive Therapy 2/2
Goals: To change the way clients think Identify clients’ automatic thoughts Reach the core schemata and Schema restructuring

28 CT: Human Nature Cognitive structures or schemas Confirmatory bias
function as implicit assumptions or premises that influence what one attends to and how one interprets events Confirmatory bias Selectively attend to events that confirm our own initial beliefs Schemas and Disorders Anxiety Threat and danger Depression Social rejection and failure

29 CT’s Cognitive Distortions
Arbitrary inferences Selective abstraction Overgeneralization Magnification and minimization Personalization Labeling and mislabeling Polarized thinking

30 Ct’s Therapy Process Socratic dialogue collaborative an interactive process to: Teach clients to recognize, observe and monitor "automatic" thoughts and assumptions Subject their automatic thoughts to reality testing Substitute realistic and accurate interpretations for the biased cognitions

31 Beck’s Approach to Depression: Cognitive Triad
Have a negative view of themselves and attribute setbacks to themselves w/o looking at the environment Interpret experiences in a negative manner, screening out positives Have a gloomy vision and projections about the future

32 Ellis Vs. Beck Ellis is more directional and confrontational in pointing out and refuting irrational thoughts Beck helps clients discover their distorted patterns of thinking Collaborative empiricism Guided discovery client and therapist examine and evaluate beliefs and modify and correct client’s misconceptions

33 Meichenbaum: Cognitive Behavior Modification
Is primarily a self-instructional therapy that focuses on helping clients become aware of their self-talk, and acquire practical coping skills to deal with problematic situations Process of Change Self Observation Starting a new internal dialogue Learning new skills

34 Coping Skills Program: Stress Inoculation
Teaches clients stress management techniques to be applied to present and future problems Consists of three phases Conceptual Phase Skills acquisition and rehearsal Application and follow-through

35 Conceptual Phase Collaborative relationship
Didactic presentation of role that cognitions and emotions play in stress Guided discovery to identify their own self-talk and how it creates stress Systematic observation and monitoring of maladaptive behaviors and their related self-talk

36 Skills Acquisition and Rehearsal
Giving clients behavioral and cognitive coping techniques to apply to stressful situations Rehearsing new self-statements Relaxation training Social skills training Time management instruction Making changes in their everyday lives

37 Application and Follow-Through Phase
Arranging for transfer and maintenance of change from therapy to the real world Clients practice in homework assignments of increasing complexity Results of these assignments are carefully evaluated Follow-up and booster sessions are scheduled in 3-, 6-, and 12 months intervals

38 Contributions and Limitations
Focus on short-term behavioral goals Emphasis on evaluation of therapy outcomes Empirical evidence of positive results May lead to symptom substitution because underneath causes are not addressed Too much power and control from therapist Lack of attention to relationship issues No processing of emotions and feelings Focus only on cognitive issues

39 Multimodal Therapy Comprehensive approach to behavior modification
Developed by Arnold Lazarus Technical eclecticism Based on social learning theory Therapy is guided by what is best for the client

40 Basic Concepts Experience includes: moving, feeling, sensing, imagining, thinking, and relating to one another Humans are the product of: genetic endowment, physical environment, and social learning history People vary in the aspects of experience they emphasize

41 Framework for assessment and therapy
Dimensions of human experience B – behavior A – affective processes S – sensation I – imagery C – cognition I – interpersonal relations D – physiological aspects

42 Behavior Change Most problems arise from faulty social learning
Therapist-client relationship similar to a trainer-trainee relationship Homework assignments to facilitate transfer of learning Therapy starts with comprehensive assessment of BASIC ID dimensions

43 Interventions Behavior Affective processes Sensation
Extinction, counter-conditioning, reinforcement; behavioral assessment Affective processes Owning and accepting feelings; catharsis Sensation Tension release, relaxation exercises

44 Interventions Imagery Cognition Interpersonal relation
Systematic desensitization; coping imagery Cognition Cognitive restructuring; irrational thoughts; Interpersonal relation Social skills, assertive training; modeling; role playing; Physiological aspects Referrals; addiction treatment

45 Cognitive/Behavioral vs Psychodynamic vs Existential
Richard’s recounting of the loneliness in his childhood Therapists possible responses? Talks at length about his loneliness; when questioned about evidence, states he is not lonely at all Possible meaning?

46 Cognitive/Behavioral vs Psychodynamic vs Existential
Feels lonely on Saturday – call the list of friends – is this a good solution? “Wife took everything from me” Beck – “lets check the evidence to see if it is true” – Other possible responses? Need a woman to be happy- Beck –disputed the belief

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