Presentation on theme: "Stephanie Garwood Spring 2015 SPED. According to IDEA: “Traumatic brain injury means an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical."— Presentation transcript:
According to IDEA: “Traumatic brain injury means an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child's educational performance. Traumatic brain injury applies to open or closed head injuries resulting in impairments in one or more areas, such as cognition; language; memory; attention; reasoning; abstract thinking; judgment; problem-solving; sensory, perceptual, and motor abilities; psychosocial behavior; physical functions; information processing; and speech. Traumatic brain injury does not apply to brain injuries that are congenital or degenerative, or to brain injuries induced by birth trauma.” What is TBI?
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of disability and death in children and adolescents in the U.S. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the two age groups at greatest risk for TBI are age 0-4 and 15-19. Among those ages 0 to 19, each year an average of:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 62,000 children sustain brain injuries requiring hospitalization as a result of motor vehicle crashes, falls, sports injuries, physical abuse and other causes 564,000 children are seen in hospital emergency departments for TBI and released. Among children ages 0 to 14 years, TBI results in an estimated in: 2,685 deaths 37,000 hospitalizations 435,000 emergency department visits Approximately 1,300 U.S. children experience severe or fatal brain trauma from child abuse every year. Incidence Statistics
Difficulty with short and long term memory. Problems concentrating. Issues with maneuvering or paralysis. Struggles with building relationships. Have difficulties with learning new skills. Cannot follow complex directions. Impacts additional areas such as: Memory and cognition, social skills, emotional regulation, attention, behavior, speech and language, and physical health. Characteristics of Children with TBI
Dividing work into smaller sections. Reduce distractions in the classroom. Demonstrate what you want the student to do with verbal communication and visuals. Frequently repeat and summarize information given to the student. Provide oral and written instructions. Slow down the pace of giving instructions. Connect new information to prior knowledge that is relevant. Provide positive feedback. Effective Instructional Strategies
Evaluate your own teaching: Monitoring the student’s performance Recording the student’s progress Review student progress Change instruction as needed until progress is made Effective Instructional Strategies Cont.
Accommodations and Modifications Allow extra time Use of assistive technology Modify tests Post rules using pictures and words Eliminate distractions Provide frequent breaks Use of mild, consistent consequences Teacher circulation Color coded materials Consistent schedules Teach: Expected behaviors Study skills Sequencing skills Visual imagery Memory strategies Small group instruction Individualized instruction Provide immediate feedback
Assistive Technology Talking spell checker/dictionary Talking word processing software Concept mapping software/templates Word prediction software Multimedia software Keyguard for keyboard Macros/shortcuts on computer Abbreviation/expansion Accessibility option on computer Screen reader software Alternate keyboards Voice recognition software Communication cards or boards Voice output communication device Adaptive paper Voice output reminders Electronic organizers/PDA’s/Palm computers Pagers/electronic reminders Large display calculators Talking calculators Voice input calculators Math software Portable word processor Picture supported software Single word scanners Enlarged text/magnifiers Recorded text/books on tape/e- text/ipod/MP3 player Scanned text with OCR software
The most crucial information that is given and taught to a child with TBI is what is listed in the accommodations and modifications section. Teach: Expected behaviors Study skills Sequencing skills Visual imagery Memory strategies With these skills and strategies, the child will be able to become more independent that will show in their work, within the school, and within their home. Building Student Independence
Keeping in touch is key. Allow the teacher to know how the child is doing at home: whether it is daily, weekly, bi-weekly, etc. Share observations via technology IEP Teacher needs to clarify instructional practices that have been effective with the parents. Strategize together on what has been successful. Teachers and Parents/Guardians: Collaboration
Accommodations & Modifications in the Secondary Classroom for a Student with Traumatic Brain Injury. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://sped.dpi.wi.gov/sites/default/files/imce/sped/doc/tbi-mod-sec.doc http://sped.dpi.wi.gov/sites/default/files/imce/sped/doc/tbi-mod-sec.doc Brain Injury in Children. (2014). In Brain Injury Association of America. Retrieved from http://www.biausa.org/brain-injury-children.htm http://www.biausa.org/brain-injury-children.htm Bowen, J. M. (2015). Classroom Interventions for Students with Traumatic Brain Injuries. In brainline.org. Retrieved from http://www.brainline.org/content/2008/07/classroom-interventions-students- traumatic-brain-injuries_pageall.html http://www.brainline.org/content/2008/07/classroom-interventions-students- traumatic-brain-injuries_pageall.html Building the Legacy: IDEA 2004. (2004). In ED.gov U.S. Department of Education Promoting educational excellence for all Americans. Retrieved from http://idea.ed.gov/explore/view/p/,root,regs,300,A,300%252E8,c,12, http://idea.ed.gov/explore/view/p/,root,regs,300,A,300%252E8,c,12 Fenell, Z. (2013). Traumatic Brain Injury. In Special Education Guide. Retrieved from http://www.specialeducationguide.com/disability-profiles/traumatic-brian- injury/ Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). (2013). In do2Learn. Retrieved from http://www.do2learn.com/disabilities/CharacteristicsAndStrategies/TraumaticBra inInjury_Characteristics.html http://www.do2learn.com/disabilities/CharacteristicsAndStrategies/TraumaticBra inInjury_Characteristics.html References