2 Vertical members which will transfer load from the horizontal members ( beam, roof etc.) to the underlying foundation or structureColumns carries compressive load.It should not buckle (lateral displacement) or crush under load.
3 Based on the material of construction Classification –Based on the material of constructionWooden ColumnsConcrete ColumnsBrick ColumnsStone ColumnsSteel ColumnsComposite Columns
9 Classification – Based on the slenderness ratio slenderness ratio = effective lengthLeast lateral dimensionShort ColumnsSlenderness ratio < 12Failure by CrushingLong columnsSlenderness ratio > 12Failure by Buckling
10 Based on the cross-section Classification –Based on the cross-sectionCross section of columns10
11 Classification – Based on the position of loading a) Axially loaded Columns b) Eccentrically loaded ColumnsPPe(a)(b)
13 Tributary AreasA column generally picks up load from halfway to its neighboursIt also carries the load that comes from the floors above7/39
14 Extremely common structural element BeamsExtremely common structural elementIn buildings majority of loads are vertical and majority of useable surfaces are horizontalBeams support loadings that are applied perpendicular to their axes.If they are designed on the basis of strength, they must resist allowable shear and bending stresses.1/39
15 Structural Members for transferring vertical loads horizontally BeamsStructural Members for transferringvertical loads horizontallyaction of beams involves combination ofbending and shear2/39
16 Requirements stability - Should not fall over adequate strength - Should not breakstability - Should not fall overadequate functionality – Should not deflect too much3/39
17 What do we need to know span - how supported loads on the beam material, shape & dimensions of beamallowable strength & allowable deflection4/39
18 Tributary Areas A beam picks up the load halfway to its neighbours Each member also carries its own weightthis beam supports the load that comes from this areaspanspacing6/39
19 Dead Loads on Elements Code values per cubic metre or square metre Multiply by the volume or area supportedLengthHeightThicknessLoad =Surface area xWt per sq m,orvolume xwt per cu m8/39
20 Live Loads on Elements Code values per square metre Multiply by the area supportedArea carried by one beamTotal Load = area x (Live load + Dead load) per sq m+ self weight9/39
21 Loads on Beams Point loads, from concentrated loads or other beams Distributed loads, from anything continuousDistributed LoadPoint LoadReactions10/39
30 A beam that is fixed or anchored at one end and free at the other end Cantilever BeamA beam that is fixed or anchored at one end and free at the other endHMRV
31 A beam that spans beyond the supports is called overhang beam Overhang may be on one side or on both sidesW
32 Statically Determinate Beams Beams in which the reactions of the supports may be determined by the use of the equations of static equilibrium are called statically determinate beams. The values of these reactions are independent of the deformations of the beams.Eg: Cantilevers, simply supported beams, overhanging beams etc.32
33 Statically Indeterminate Beams If the number of reactions exerted upon the beam exceeds the number of equations of static equilibrium, then the static equations must be supplemented by equations based upon the deformations of the beam. This type of beams are called statically indeterminate beams.Eg: Propped Cantilevers, fixed beams etc.
41 The primary function of a wall is to enclose or divide space of the building to make it more functional and usefulWalls provide privacy, afford security and give protection against heat, cold, sun and rainWalls provide support to floors and roofs
42 Requirements of a good wall A good wall has following characteristics:Strength and stabilityDurability and fire resistanceSound insulationAdequate protection from weather changes like wind, rain etc.Low initial and maintenance costsHorizontal joints should be continuous and vertical joints should be staggered
43 Types of wall Walls may be basically divided into two types: Load-bearing wallsNon load-bearing
44 Load-bearing walls are those designed to carry super-imposed loads (transferred through roofs etc), in addition to their own weight (self weight)Non load-bearing walls carry their own load only. They generally serve as divide walls or partition walls.
45 Load bearing walls may further be divided into following types: Solid masonry wallMost commonly usedBuilt of individual blocks of material, such as bricks, clay or concrete blocks or stone, usually in horizontal course cemented together with suitable mortar.
46 Cavity wallA Cavity wall or hollow wall is the one which consists of two separate walls, called leaves or skins, with a cavity or gap in-between.The space between the leaves is either left as a continuous cavity or filled with non-load bearing insulating and water proofing material.