Presentation on theme: "INTERACTIVE MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS Organisms and their environment"— Presentation transcript:
1 INTERACTIVE MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS Organisms and their environment The answers are provided. Explanations of why the alternatives are unsatisfactory are also offered
2 (a) to see if there is a better answer and These multiple choice questions are similar to the ones set by the GCSE and IGCSE Examination Boards except that, in some cases, there may be more than one acceptable answerFor this reason, even if you select a correct answer at your first attempt, it is worth looking at all the alternatives(a) to see if there is a better answer and(b) to see why some of the alternatives are unacceptableQuestion 1
3 Question 1A thrush, a snail, a cabbage and a sparrow hawk are all part of a food chain. Which of them is a primary (or ‘first order’) consumer?(a) The cabbage(b) The snail(c) The sparrow hawk(d) The thrushQuestion 2
4 NoThe cabbage is the producer at the beginning of the food chain
5 YesThe snail is the primary (first order) consumer. It eats the cabbage leaves
6 NoThe sparrow hawk is a tertiary (‘third order’) consumer at the end of the food chain. It is a predator of the thrush
7 NoThe thrush is the secondary (‘second order’) consumer. It eats the snail and is itself eaten by the sparrow hawk
8 Question 2In the nitrogen cycle, the bacteria in root nodules of leguminous plants can convert atmospheric nitrogen into nitrates. These bacteria are called …(a) nitrifying bacteria(b) denitrifying bacteria(c) nitrite bacteria(d) nitrogen-fixing bacteriaQuestion 3
9 NoAlthough the bacteria in root nodules ultimately increase the nitrogen content of the soil, the term ‘nitrifying bacteria’ applies mainly to bacteria living freely in the soil. These bacteria cannot use atmospheric nitrogen.
10 NoDenitrifying bacteria convert the nitrates in the soil into atmospheric nitrogen.
11 NoNitrite bacteria live freely in the soil and convert ammonium ions into nitrates. They cannot use atmospheric nitrogen
12 YesThe nitrogen-fixing bacteria (Rhizobium spp) live mainly in root nodules of leguminous plants. They convert nitrogen (from the air in the soil) into nitrates, which are eventually incorporated into amino acids by the plant.
13 Question 3 sunlight The diagram represents a natural recycling process CONSUMERSThe diagram represents a natural recycling processdieeatendieAPRODUCERSWhat is missing at A?minerals and saltsdecay(a) AnimalsSOIL(b) Plants(c) Decomposers(d) BacteriaQuestion 4
16 YesThe decomposers, (mainly bacteria and fungi) break down the dead remains of organisms and release their products into the soil
17 NoSome bacteria are important decomposers, but there are many species of bacteria which are not decomposers. Also, there are many fungi which play a part in decay.
18 Question 4In a food chain, the amount of energy passed from one trophic level to the next ….(a) increases(b) decreases(c) stays the same(d) sometimes increases; sometimes decreasesQuestion 5
19 NoThe organisms at any trophic level will be using part of their resources to produce energy, so there will be less to pass to the next level
20 YesThe organisms at any trophic level will be using part of their resources to produce energy, so there will be less to pass to the next level
21 NoThe organisms at any trophic level will be using part of their resources to produce energy, so there will be less to pass to the next level
22 NoThe amount of energy passed from one trophic level to the next may vary but there is always a decrease
23 Question 5CpopulationThe graph shows the sigmoid curve for population growth.At C …B(a) the death rate exceeds the reproduction rate(b) the reproduction rate exceeds the death rateA(c) the death rate and repro-duction rates are the sametime(d) the death rate and repro-duction rate decrease equallyQuestion 6
24 NoIf the death rate exceeds the reproduction rate, the population will decrease
25 NoIf the reproduction rate exceeds the death rate, the population will continue to grow
26 YesIf organisms die at the same rate as they are created, the population will be stable
27 YesIf fewer organisms are created, but the death rate decreases at the same rate, the population will stay the same but the point of stability will be reached at a lower population level
28 Question 6What is the source of energy on which nearly all living organisms ultimately depend?(a) Photosynthesis(b) Respiration(c) Combustion(d) SunlightQuestion 7
29 NoNearly all living organisms depend directly or indirectly on photosynthesis by plants for their energy supply. But this is not the ultimate source of energy
30 NoRespiration is the way in which most living organisms derive energy from their food but it is not the ultimate source of energy
31 NoCombustion is a source of energy for many processes but not for living organisms
32 YesThe process of photosynthesis in green plants uses energy from sunlight for making food. The energy from this food is used by nearly all living organisms either by eating plants or eating each other
33 Question 7 Which of the following gases are the cause of acid rain? (a) Carbon dioxide(b) Carbon monoxide(c) Nitrogen oxide(d) Sulphur dioxideQuestion 8
34 NoCarbon dioxide does dissolve in rain to form a weak solution of carbonic acid (H2CO3) but this is normal and does not contribute to what is known as ‘acid rain’.However, it is thought to be making the ocean more acid and this is a cause for concern
35 NoCarbon monoxide is a poisonous gas but does not contribute to acid rain
36 YesOxides of nitrogen dissolve in rain water to form nitric acid which is very harmful to lakes and land plants
37 YesSulphur dioxide dissolves in water to form, eventually, sulphuric acid. This damages lakes and land plants
38 Question 8 Acute shortage of oxygen in lakes and rivers is caused by … (a) eutrophication(b) the oxygen demand by the excess of decaying plant material(c) excess nitrate and phosphate(d) excessive growth of algaeQuestion 9
39 NoEutrophication refers to a high level of nutrients in a body of water. It may cause excessive algal growth but is not a direct cause of oxygen depletion
40 YesThe oxygen demand of an excess of decomposing plant material, e.g. algae, is the immediate cause of the reduction in the oxygen content of the water in lakes and rivers.The excess of plant material is the result of eutrophication
41 NoEutrophication results from high levels of nitrate and phosphate in the water. But although this encourages excessive algal growth it does not inevitably lead to oxygen depletion.
42 NoThe excessive growth of algae is not itself a cause of oxygen depletion.
43 Question 9Which of the following processes make no net contribution of carbon dioxide to the Earth’s atmosphere?(a) Growing crops(b) Burning wood(c) Burning coal(d) Raising cattleQuestion 10
44 YesThe growing crops are photosynthesising and removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
45 YesThe carbon in wood comes from the carbon dioxide absorbed by the tree in the course of photosynthesis. When the wood is burned, the amount of carbon dioxide released is the same as that taken in by photosynthesis
46 NoThe carbon in coal comes from trees which were fossilized about 300 million years ago. So the carbon dioxide released from burning coal adds to the present day carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
47 NoRespiration in cattle produces carbon dioxide which is added to the atmosphere
48 Question 10For the conservation of animals, the most important step is…(a) reduction in the use of pesticides(b) preservation of habitat(c) suppression of hunting(d) captive breeding programmes
49 NoReduction in the use of pesticides certainly helps to conserve, for example, insect species and the organisms which feed on them (e.g. birds) but it affects only a limited range of animals
50 YesThis is the most important step. If an animal’s habitat is destroyed, it is unlikely to survive
51 NoSuppression of hunting helps to conserve a number of species, such as the rhinoceros, but many animal populations are not threatened by hunting
52 NoCaptive breeding may help conserve animals threatened with extinction but if their habitat has been destroyed they cannot usually be released