Presentation on theme: "Matter and Energy in the Ecosystem"— Presentation transcript:
1 Matter and Energy in the Ecosystem Chapter 4Matter and Energy in the EcosystemEcosystems transfer energy!
2 Section 4.1: Roles of Living Things PRODUCERS - also known as AutotrophsOrganisms that make their own food from inorganic molecules and energy.Plants are the most familiar.Almost all capture energy from the sun and make food through photosynthesis.Photosynthesis Formula:Sunlight energy + H2O + CO2 = C6H12O6(food) + O2
3 CONSUMERS – also known as heterotrophs Organisms that cannot make their own food.This includes all animals, fungi and many protists (single-celled organisms) and bacteria.Four basic kinds of consumers.Herbivores – eat plantsCarnivores – eat meat (herbivores & carnivores)Omnivores – eat producers & consumersScavengers – eat dead organisms
5 DECOMPOSERS – also known as heterotrophs Bacteria & fungi that consume the bodies of dead organisms and other organic wastes.They consume leaves fallen from trees to bodies of dead herbivores and carnivores.Bacteria and fungi break down organic matter in animal waste.Decomposers are beneficial to an ecosystem because they recycle nutrients from organisms back into the environment to be used again.
6 TROPHIC LEVELSA layer in the structure of feeding relationships in an ecosystem.Producers make up the first and largest trophic level, they make their own food so they are called autotrophs. (at the bottom)Consumers make up several more trophic levels, because they cannot make their own food they are called heterotrophs.Decomposers – are on the top. Break everything back down into the earth.Most ecosystems have 3, 4, or 5 trophic levels.Humans exist at any trophic level except the first.
8 Section 4.2 Ecosystem Structure Food Chains and Food WebsEnergy moves through ecosystems in the form of food.Food chain – a series of different organisms that pass food between the trophic levels.Food web – a network of food chains representing the feeding relationships among organisms.
10 Section 4.2 Ecosystem Structure Biological MagnificationThe effects of pollution by humans can be magnified in a food web.The pesticide DDT was passed through a food webIt was sprayed on crops to kill insectsDDT washed into lakes and streams by rain and was taken in by producers.The DDT passed through consumers and caused problems in reproduction decreasing the population of bald eagles greatly.Humans are particularly vulnerable to toxic pollutants because of biological magnification.
11 Section 4.3 Energy in the Ecosystem BIOMASSEnergy in the form of biomass is transferred through the ecosystem as one trophic level feeds on another.Biomass – is the total amount of organic matter present in a trophic level.Biomass pyramids depict the mass of organic matter in each trophic level.
12 Section 4.4 Cycles of Matter About 96% of your body is made up of just 4 elements:Carbon (C)Hydrogen (H)Nitrogen (N)Oxygen (O)These 4 elements are also essential to the growth of producers in an ecosystem.
13 Section 4.4 Cycles of Matter WATER CYCLEWater moving between the ocean, atmosphere and land.The sun is the source of energy that powers the cycle.Evaporation – water changes from a liquid to a gas and enters the atmosphere.Transpiration – the evaporation of water from the leaves of plants into the atmosphere.Condensation - Water vapor cools as it rises and condenses into tiny droplets, forming clouds.Precipitation – water returns to the earth’s surface as rain, snow, sleet or hail.
15 Scientists estimate that it can take a water molecule that falls on land 4,000 years to complete the cycle
16 Section 4.4 Cycles of Matter CARBON CYCLEThe reactions of 2 primary processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration could not occur without carbon.PhotosynthesisSunlight energy + H2O + CO2 = C6H12O6(food) + O2Cellular RespirationC6H12O6(food) + O2 = CO2 + H2O + energy2 other important sources of carbon are the ocean and rocks.CO2 dissolves easily in water.Carbon also stored in rocks like coal, limestone, oil.
18 Section 4.4 Cycles of Matter NITROGEN CYCLEOrganisms require nitrogen which is a key element in the formation of amino acids.Amino Acids are the building blocks of protein.Certain type of bacteria use nitrogen gas directly from the atmosphere.Without bacteria, living things would not be able to utilize nitrogen.Such nitrogen-fixing bacteria produce ammonia (NH3), a form of nitrogen plants can use.
19 Section 4.4 Cycles of Matter Nitrogen fixing bacteria live both in the soil and in the roots of legumes.Legumes include peanuts, beans, and clover.Legumes enrich the soil by adding nitrogen to it through their root nodules.Animals get nitrogen by eating the plants with the protein or other consumersDecomposers return nitrogen to the soil and the cycle starts again.