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© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning Chapter 1: A Holistic Approach to Safety, Nutrition, and Health in Quality Early Childhood Education Environments
© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning Holistic Approach to Early Childhood Education 13 million children under age 6 have mothers in the workforce 75% of children under 5 years and 50% of infants are in some form of child care By age of 6, 84% of children have received supplemental care To avoid risk, all areas of development of children should be considered Good quality early childhood education can reduce the magnitude of the effects of problems
© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning The Environment Physical Social and emotional Cultural Economic
© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning
The Physical Environment Heredity (genetics) a.k.a. nature – body type – temperament – inherited diseases and traits
© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning The Physical Environment (continued) Home environment a.k.a. nurture – Should be healthy and protected from harm – Includes family, home, school, neighbor- hood and community – May be at risk due to abuse of some type – Quality early childhood education can reduce risk
© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning The Social and Emotional Environment Attachment is the goal Consistent and sensitive caregiving – by parent or teacher Quality care = primary caregiver
© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning The Economic Environment Influenced by parents’ work history, neighborhood, community, and nation One in 5 children in the United States lives below the poverty level – 40% of these parents are unemployed – Consider this as new welfare reforms affect children – Impact of financial stress can affect emotions and behavior
© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning The Economic Environment (continued) Lack of preventive care and access to resources = at risk Teachers can help children by providing good nutrition and preventive health and safety measures Families can be helped by connecting them to resources and other community linkages
© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning The Cultural Environment Culture = beliefs and practices of a given group Values conflicts among and between cultures Newer immigrants and migrants less likely to assimilate Cultural competence is the key – Teachers should support family values as much as is possible – Awareness of diversity present in child care is important
© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning Health Promotion, Protection, and Disease Prevention Knowledge of developmental aspects and issues help to promote, protect, and prevent risk for children Teachers need to establish and maintain a healthy environment – using an holistic approach – being aware of organizations that help promote well-being and prevent harm
© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning Risk and Risk Management of Children’s Well-Being To prevent risk for children, risk management minimizes chance of danger for children in early childhood education environments Teachers need to use – health promotion – safety protection – nutrition education
© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning Providing High-Quality Child Care = Goal 1 Maximize health status of children Goal 2 Minimize risk to health, safety, and well-being of children
© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning Providing High-Quality Child Care = Goal 3 Use education as a tool to promote health and reduce risk Goal 4 Recognize the importance of guidelines, standards, and laws as they apply to the well-being of children
© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning Providing High-Quality Child Care = Goal 5 Practice cultural competence Goal 6 Develop partnerships with families to provide a caring community
© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning See Tables 1.1, 1.2, and 1.3
© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning Reality Check—Child Care in America: The Reality 73% of infants and toddlers are in nonparental care part of the time, and the great majority of kids by the age of 6 years have been in early childhood education environments – Child care has become a necessity for most families – The assumption might be that quality early childhood education is the norm
© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning Reality Check ( continued ) Several studies have shown that the majority of child care is not quality, and that most centers and family care homes do not meet children’s needs for health, safety, and secure attachments There is no formal system to oversee family child care homes There are no consistent federal regulations for center-based care
© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning What Is a Quality Early Childhood Education Environment? Teachers – have adequate training in child development, health, and safety – provide sensitive, responsive care – have skills to communicate with parents and promote nurturing – are competent with diverse cultural and language background of children – are adequately compensated
© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning What Is a Quality Early Childhood Education Environment? An environment that – allows for good health and safety – provides good working conditions for caregivers – has adequate child to caregiver ratio – has toys and equipment that are age and developmentally appropriate – provides adequate nutrition and food safety if providing meals and snacks
© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning Reality Check—The Reality of War and Terrorism for Young Children in the United States Children react to war and terrorism A range of behaviors may be expressed Children want to know about what they fear It is important to be truthful
© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning Let children deal with their fears in their own way Teach children how to look for helpers Play helps children deal with things they do not understand Play behavior may need to be directed and discussed Reality Check—The Reality of War and Terrorism for Young Children in the United States ( continued )
© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning Practice cultural competence and help children to learn tolerance Involve families Children need – structure – consistency – predictability – nonpunitive limit setting – nuturance Reality Check—The Reality of War and Terrorism for Young Children in the United States ( continued )
© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning Building Curriculum for Quality Early Childhood Education Environments Provide mechanism for teaching children Includes a number of elements Should offer several important qualities, including flexibility
© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning Building Curriculum for Quality Early Childhood Education Environments ( continued ) See Table 1-4 for curriculum design consideration Reggio Emilio approach – investigation of information – gaining knowledge through project-based learning by doing
© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning Building Curriculum for Quality Early Childhood Education Environments ( continued ) Project steps – 1 = interest or idea – 2 = development – 3 = conclusion Co-constructive curriculum
© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning Building Curriculum for Quality Early Childhood Education Environments ( continued ) Regular curriculum – Theme based – Has objectives and outcomes – Age and developmentally appropriate
© 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning Questions How does the environment of your own community support the physical, socioemotional, cultural, and economic lives of the children in it? How would you rate your community? Are there any differences geographically within your area? What might be done to make improvements?
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