Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER SIX CHAPTER SIX Basic Cognitive Functions: Information Processing, Attention, and Memory."— Presentation transcript:
CHAPTER SIX CHAPTER SIX Basic Cognitive Functions: Information Processing, Attention, and Memory
Cognition The way the mind works, specifically regarding: Attention Memory Intelligence Problem solving Language use
The Information Processing Model Uses a computer metaphor to explain how people process stimuli Information- processing approach: information is processed through a series of hypothetical stages.
Encoding: process of getting information into memory Storage: happens when info is kept in memory Retrieval: getting info back out of memory The Information Processing Model and Memory
Information Processing and Attention Automatic processing: occurs without person being consciously aware Effortful processing: requires one’s full attention
Two contrasting approaches to aging and attention:
States that cognitive resources: limit how much information one can attend to generally decrease with age Processing Resources The amount of attention one has to apply to a particular situation –May account for ability to remember. Attentional Resources Theory
Inhibitory control: The ability to focus on one aspect of a task while ignoring another Attentional Resources Theory
The idea that older persons have task- irrelevant thoughts that interfere with processing Older adults have been shown to have increased prefrontal cortex activity and decreased memory performance compared to younger adults Experience can compensate for deficits Inhibitory Deficit Hypothesis
Ability to monitor multiple input sources Older persons are more penalized when they must divide their attention and find it more difficult to multitask. –Writing while listening –Conversing while driving Extensive practice can minimize poor performance on multitasking. Multitasking
General slowing hypothesis General slowing hypothesis proposes loss of speed in nervous system is main cause of poorer information processing
Processing speed and attention Visual search tasks require the observer to locate a specific target among set of distractors. Simple search Conjunction search
Working Memory The active processes and structures involved in holding information in mind Simultaneously using that information, sometimes in conjunction with incoming information to: –Solve a problem –Make a decision –Learn new information Memory Processes
Implicit versus Explicit Memory Implicit (procedural) memory –Retrieval of information without conscious or intentional recollection –Familiar tasks, such as brushing teeth or driving a car. –Smaller age differences than explicit memory Explicit (declarative) memory –Intentional and conscious remembering of information that is learned at a specific point in time –An example is remembering who wrote the Gettysburg address.
The ability to remember extensive amounts of information from a few seconds, hours, or decades. Semantic Memory –Learning and remembering the meaning of words, concepts, facts, etc. Episodic Memory –Conscious recollection of information from a specific event or point in time Source memory –The recall of where or how an individual acquires information Long Term Memory
Recall Memory –Occurs when one remembers information without any help or cues –Do you remember what was on the first slide? Long Term Memory
Recognition Memory –Occurs when one selects from a list of several options –Were any of the following images on the first slide? Long Term Memory
Age Differences in Memory Encoding –Elaborative rehearsal involves: making connections between incoming information and information already known organization of ideas establishing links between concepts Older persons are not as effective in strategies as younger. Pet scans show age differences in encoding. –Scaffolding theory: older adults recruit alternate neural circuits to make up for losses suffered elsewhere in the brain
Autobiographical Memory Involves remembering information and events from our own life –A form of episodic memory Flashbulb memories –Vivid memories of very personal or emotional events Memory Processes
Misinformation and Memory False Memory –When one remembers items or events that did not occur Remembering childhood abuse that never happened Picking a person out of a lineup that is innocent Eyewitness Testimony, Part II Uploaded by CBSNewsOnline on Mar 8, 2009 Link to video
Memory in Context Prospective Memory Involves remembering to perform a planned action in the future (remembering to remember) –General decline with age –Older patients remember to take medication better than busy middle-aged patients!
Memory Self Efficacy The confidence you have in your own memory Stereotype threat: People perform in ways consistent with negative stereotypes about the group in which they perceive themselves as belonging. –Older adults do worse on a memory task if they believe that age hampers memory ability
Factors That Preserve Memory Exercising memory –Think of memory as a mental muscle Multilingualism and Cognitive Functioning –Research suggests that older adults who speak four or more languages had the best cognitive state independent of education.
Memory Drugs Only modest, short term improvement No medical breakthroughs Combining Strategies –What works with one may not work for all
Memory Training External aids: rely on environmental resources –Notebooks or calendars Internal aids: rely on mental processes –Imagery, rote rehearsal, mnemonics
health-related behaviors Memory is also related to health-related behaviors in middle and later adulthood Cigarette smoking Poorer memory among smokers and former smokers Consumption of fish Lower rate of cognitive decline in fish eaters Dietary intake of: Vitamins B12, B6, and folate Flavonoids including chocolate Exercise Positive benefits of aerobic exercise and strength training Emotions Stress and depression can interfere with memory performance Sleep Related to better memory in young adults Dietary intake of Homocysteine, or meat Interferes with memory: Enhances memory: