2 The Information Processing Model Uses a computer metaphor to explain how people process stimuliThe information-processing approach is based on the assumption that information is processed through a series of hypothetical stages or stores.
3 Attentional and Perceptual Processing Sensory memoryIncoming information fromthe senses is retained inthe body’s nervous systemMemory details depend on howmuch attention is given to thestimulus.If attention is given, then the info is passed to the next stage of memory.Age differences are not typically found at this stage; however, they do begin to appear when attentional processes are applied to sensory memory.
4 The amount of attention one has to apply to a particular situation Attentional ControlSpeed of ProcessingHow quickly and efficiently these early steps in information processing are completedSlowing of processing withage is task-specific.Processing ResourcesThe amount of attention one has to apply to a particular situationMay account for ability to remember.Two theories:Inhibitory lossAttentional loss
5 Attentional ControlInhibitory lossThe idea that older persons have task-irrelevant thoughts that interfere with processing.Research shows inhibition is not universal across all aspects of stimulation.Certain strategies can compensate for irrelevant information interference.
6 Divided attention: multitasking Attentional LossDivided attention: multitaskingOlder persons are more penalized when they must divide their attention and find it more difficult to multitask.Writing while listeningConversing while drivingExtensive practice canminimize poor performanceon multitasking.Older adults use strategiesto compensate for inabilityto multitask.
9 Information Processing Automatic processing: occurs without person being consciously awareEffortful processing: requires one’s full attention
10 Information Processing Encoding: process of getting information into memoryStorage: happens when info is kept in memoryRetrieval: getting info back out of memory
11 Memory Processes Working Memory The active processes and structures involved in holding information in mindSimultaneously using that information, sometimes in conjunction with incoming information to:Solve a problemMake a decisionLearn new information
12 Implicit versus Explicit Memory Explicit memory (declarative)Intentional and conscious remembering of information that is learned at a specific point in timeAn example is remembering who wrote the Gettysburg address.Implicit memory (procedural memory)Retrieval of information without conscious or intentional recollectionFamiliar tasks, such as brushing teeth or driving a car.Smaller age differences than explicit memory
13 Long Term MemoryThe ability to remember extensive amounts of information from a few seconds, hours, or decades.Semantic MemoryLearning and remembering the meaning of words and concepts that are not tied to specific occurrences of events in timeEpisodic MemoryConscious recollection of information from a specific event or point in time
14 Long Term MemoryRecall MemoryOccurs when one remembers information without any help or cuesDo you remember what was on the first slide?
15 Long Term Memory Recognition Memory Occurs when one selects from a list of several optionsWere any of the following images on the first slide?
16 Autobiographical Memory Memory ProcessesAutobiographical MemoryInvolves remembering information and events from our own lifeIt is a form of episodic memory.Flashbulb memoriesVivid memories of very personal or emotional events
17 Factors Affecting Age Differences in Memory EncodingElaborative rehearsal involves making connections between incoming information and information already known.Use of strategies during encodingOrganizeEstablish linksOlder persons are not as effective in strategies as younger.Pet scans show age differences in encoding.
18 Misinformation and memory RetrievalFalse-fame effectMistaking familiarity for fameResults indicate older persons have a deficit in retrieval.Misinformation and memorySource memoryThe ability to remember the source of a familiar event as well as if the event is real or imaginedFalse MemoryWhen one remembers items or events that did not occurRemembering childhood abusethat never happenedPicking a person out of a lineupthat is innocent
19 Eyewitness Testimony, Part II Uploaded by CBSNewsOnline on Mar 8, 2009Lesley Stahl explores the task of an eyewitness to choose a criminal out of line up through memory.
20 Memory in Context Prospective Memory Involves remembering to perform a planned action in the future (remembering to remember)Older patients remember to take medication better than busy middle-aged patients.
21 Cognitive Reserve: Factors That Preserve Memory Exercising memoryThinking of memory as a mental muscleMultilingualism and Cognitive FunctioningResearch suggests that older adults who speak four or more languages had the best cognitive state independent of education.Semantic Memory in Service of Episodic MemoryOlder adults are better at remembering related as opposed to unrelated word pairs, indicating that episodic memory might be a useful encoding strategy
22 Negative Stereotypes and Memory Performance Older adults do worse on a memory task if they believe that age hampers memory ability
23 Training Memory Skills Strategies Memory TrainingTraining Memory SkillsStrategiesExternal aids: rely on environmental resourcesNotebooks or calendarsInternal aids: rely on mental processesImagery, rote rehearsal, mnemonics
24 Only modest, short term improvement No medical breakthroughs Memory DrugsOnly modest, short term improvementNo medical breakthroughsCombining StrategiesWhat works with one may not work for all
25 Normal versus Abnormal Memory Aging Distinguish by asking if changes disrupt a person’s ability to function in everyday lifeRepeatedly forgetting to turn off the stoveForgets the way homeAlzheimer’sProgressive destruction of memoryWernicke-KorsakoffLoss of recent memory and sometimes inability to form new memory
26 Memory and Mental Health DepressionFeelings of helplessness and hopelessnessDementiasDeclines in cognitive performanceIrreversible and untreatableStudies found that negative effects of depression on memory are greater in young and middle-aged than in older adults.
27 Nutrition and Drugs that Can Impair Memory Alcohol and caffeine, if abused, will affect memory.Sedatives and tranquilizers have been found to impair memory.