2 OBJECTIVESLearn about the pros and cons of biomass energy and it sustainabilityLearn about the production and implementation of biomass energyLearn about technical aspects of biomass and how they can be overcomeLearn about the regulations impacting biomass useDevelop an educated opinion about the sustainability of biomass as an alternative energy
3 OVERVIEWBiomass is a renewable energy source that is derived from living or recently living organisms.Biomass includes biological material, not organic material like coal.Energy derived from biomass is mostly used to generate electricity or to produce heat.Thermal energy is extracted by means of combustion, torrefaction, pyrolysis, and gasification.Biomass can be chemically and biochemically treated to convert it to a energy-rich fuel.
7 Potential Energy Source? California produces more than 60 million bone dry tons of biomass each year.5 million bone dry tons are now burned to make electricityIf it were all used, the 60 million tons could make close to 2,000 megawatts of electricityWould give enough energy to power 2 million homesAbout 6% of Canada’s energy needs are met by biomass, but that could be greatly increased
8 Potential Energy Source? In the United States, we already get 45 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity from biomass, about 1.2 percent of our nation's total electric salesEstimates of the ultimate potential for biomass energy vary, depending on agricultural forecasts, waste reduction by industry, and paper recyclingThe Department of Energy believes that we could produce four percent of our transportation fuels from biomass by 2010, and as much as 20 percent by 2030For electricity, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that energy crops and crop residues alone could supply as much as much as 14 percent of our power needs.
9 Projected Nonhydroelectric Renewable Electricity Energy Generation by Energy Source, 2010 and 2020 (billion KWH)Source: DOE Energy Information Administration
10 DISAGREEMENTSBiomass has a smaller energy content for its bulk than fossil fuelsCosts of labor, transportation, and storage would then be higher
11 ENVIRONMENTAL ADVANTAGES Renewable resourceReduces landfillsProtects clean water suppliesReduces acid rain and smogReduces greenhouse gasesCarbon dioxideMethane
12 BIOMASS AND CARBON EMMISIONS Biomass emits carbon dioxide when it naturally decays and when it is used as an energy sourceLiving biomass in plants and trees absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through photosynthesisBiomass causes a closed cycle with no net emissions of greenhouse gases
13 GEOGRAPHIC AREAS Comes from the forest Can also come from plant and animal wasteWood and waste can be found virtually anywhereTransportation costs
14 ENHANCEMENT Wood is the largest resource Expand by using other plants, residues, or wasteFinding different materials to use as fuel
15 DEVELOPMENT Many areas could be used Potentially supply more than 20% of US energy supplyBioenergy crops will beMore important in futureCome closer to area thatNeed energy
16 TECHNICAL IMPEDIMENTS Trees and other biomass is hard to gatherThere is a low output of 34% energy gainDevelopment of cheapo and reliable combustion techniques that will not release pollutants
17 TECHNICAL IMPEDIMENTS Development of gasification techniques that incorporate hydrogen to create syngasBiomass contains less energy per pound than fossil fuelsCost-inefficient to transport more than 50 miles before it is converted to fuel
18 SOLUTION The solution is to have decentralized processing plants This means less transport of biomassThis is more cost-efficientMore reliable, regular, and better qualityLess competition between companies
19 ENVIRONMENTAL DISADVANTAGES Crop and forest residues often contain high concentrations of important nutrientsIf the residue is harvested as energy, the nutrients can be lost to the surrounding environment.Other synthetic chemical nutrients or fertilizers can later be addedMore plants and trees must be planted, because they will be used in a higher quantity
20 LAWS AND REGULATIONSA number of federal laws and regulation apply to biomass energy deployment activities. For the most part, state laws and regulations do not apply to biomass energy development on tribal lands. Federal legal requirements apply to specific activities associated with biomass energy development.The impacts of a specific project will be determined by factors such as the type and size of the biomass facility, the amount of land disturbed by construction activities, the amount of land in use by facilities long term, the location of the site with respect to other resources.
21 GOVERNMENTAL INITIATIVE California produces more than 60 million bone dry tons of biomass each year. Of this total, five million bone dry tons is now burned to make electricity.Many states promote biomass if cost, location and resources are to their benefit
22 SUSTAINIBILITYBiomass is sustainable but there is an expense in producing and converting biomass into fuels and electricity.Collecting biomass turned out to be very different than harvesting, as loggers gained more experience the process became much more efficient.While biomass is one of the best forms of renewable energy, it is not a great fuel.
23 SUSTAINIBILITYRemoving too much biomass can use up nutrients from the soil and possibly increase erosion.Biomass supplies about 15 times as much energy then solar and wind in the United States, and has the potential to supply much more.
24 CONCLUSIONBiomass is a potential alternative to fossil fuels but it is not very viable.There are many problems in the development and transportation of it and carbon is a byproduct of processing of biomass, just like it is a byproduct of fossil fuels.There are better alternative energies.
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