IV. Assessment principles Generally speaking, assessment should based on the following principles: assess authentic use of language in reading, writing, speaking, and listening; assess literacy and language in a variety of contexts;
assess the environment, the instruction, anti the students; assess processes as well as products; analyze patterns of errors in language and literacy; be based on normal developmental patterns and behavior in language and literacy acquisition; clarify and use standards when assessing reading, writing, and content knowledge:
i nvolve students and parents, as well as other personnel such as the ESL or mainstream teacher, in the assessment process; be an ongoing part of every day. It is ideal if assessors can follow all these principles. But in reality, it is very difficult to achieve this.
V. Testing in assessment 1 ． The role of testing in the classroom. Classroom testing is very important in language classroom. Although the teacher is primarily concerned with teaching rather than testing, classroom tests play three important roles in the second-language program: they define course objectives, they stimulate student progress, and they evaluate class achievement.
（ 1 ） Defining course objectives. If all the tests are written tests the students will soon concentrate on perfecting the skills of reading and writing. If the teacher explains to the students that the course is intended to teach them how to perform the language with near-native fluency and then persists in giving tests composed of translations and declension tables, the students will continually refer to traditional grammatical terms and English equivalents. Therefore, in a very real way the classroom tests define the short-range course objectives of the teacher.
（ 2 ） Stimulating student progress. As much as possible, the time given over to classroom testing should provide a rewarding experience. The test should furnish an opportunity for the students to show how well they can handle specific elements of the target language; gone are the days when the teacher designed a test to point up the students’ ignorance or lack of application.
（ 3 ） Evaluating class achievement Through frequent testing, the teacher can determine which aspects of the program are presenting difficulties for individual students and for the class as a whole. By analyzing the mistakes made on a given test, or more precisely on given items of that test, the teacher can determine where to concentrate extra class drill and how best to assist each student.
2 Types of test There are four basic types of language tests: There are four basic types of language tests: Aptitude tests Aptitude tests Progress tests Progress tests Achievement tests Achievement tests Proficiency tests. Proficiency tests.
The aptitude test The aptitude test is conceived as a prognostic measure that indicates whether a student is likely to learn a second language readily. It is generally given before the student begins language study, and may be used to select students for a language course or to place students in sections appropriate to their ability.
The progress test The progress test measures how much the student has learned in a specific course of instruction. The tests that the classroom teacher prepares for administration at the end of a unit or end of a semester are progress tests. Their format reflects the various components of the curriculum.
The achievement test The achievement test is similar to the progress test in that it measures how much the student has learned in the course of second-language instruction. However, achievement tests are usually not built around one set of teaching materials but are designed for use with students from a variety of different schools and programs.
The proficiency test The proficiency test also measures what students have learned, but the aim of the proficiency test is to determine whether this language ability corresponds to specific language requirements. The proficiency tests, in fact, usually report student language ability on a continuum that reflects a predetermined set of categories.
3. Testing items When we design a test question, we should focus on the followings: When we design a test question, we should focus on the followings: validity validity reliability reliability discrimination discrimination difficulty difficulty
4. Types of test items Test items can be designed in various formats. A test whose items are designed in different formats tends to have more validity and reliability than a test that is designed in a single format, for example, multiple-choice format.
The most frequently used test formats. 1.Questions & answers 2.True or false questions 3.Multiple-choice questions 4.Gap-filling or completion 5.Matching questions 6.Dictation 7.Transformation 8.Translation 9.Essay writing 10.Interview
Conclusion Conclusion. In this session, we started with the discussion about assessment purposes. We believe that assessment is to find out what the students already know and can do rather than what they do not know and cannot do. However, at the present time, assessment (tests in particular) is often conducted to find out the students’ weaknesses, which damages the students’ motivation and confidence in language learning.
Conclusion….cont… Conclusion….cont…. Assessment can be done in many ways. Testing is only one of them. Varying assessment methods according to assessment purposes and contexts helps to make assessment fairer and more reliable. Whatever methods or formats are used, assessment must always follow a set of principles which guarantee assessment validity and reliability.
VI. Conclusion VI. Conclusion. When tests have to be used in assessment, great care must be taken when teachers design test formats and items. Tests designed in different formats tend to have more validity and reliability than tests designed in a single format.
Summary Assessment principles Assessment principles Testing in assessment Testing in assessment Types of tests Types of tests Frequently used test formats Frequently used test formats