Judge predetermined right-or-wrong answers, e.g., multiple choice and fill in the blanks Provide immediate, but fixed, feedback, suggestions, and encouragement Provide authentic information through texts, pictures, sound, video segments, and animation Record learner’s writing, speech, and learning progress
Provide feedback beyond a predetermined list of messages Give feedback that address unexpected input; in other words, meaning Engage learner in rich negotiation of meaning characteristic of face-to-face interaction Motivate depth and quality of engagement characteristic of human interaction
How is the computer used? Computer Roles – Tutor (behaviorist) – Tool (cognitive) – Medium (sociocognitive) CALL Contexts – One-computer classroom – Network computer lab – Self-access learning center – Distance learning
- student/learner-centeredness (to promote learner autonomy) - student/learner-centeredness (to promote learner autonomy) - meaningful purpose - comprehensive input - sufficient level of stimulation (cognitively and affectively) - multiple modalities (to support various learning styles and strategies) - high level of interaction (human-machine and human-human) - high level of interaction (human-machine and human-human)
Time Time effort effort Low Level Low Level Multi-level classroom Multi-level classroom Native language Native language Monotony Monotony Autonomy Autonomy
“What is the use of a book,” thought Alice, “without pictures or conversation?” ~ From Alice's Adventures In Wonderland (p.1) Technology is neither an unalloyed blessing nor an unmitigated curse. Computers don’t teach, but teachers do. Learners don’t learn from machines but from human beings.
“ If knowledge is worth having, it is worth sharing.” ~ Deborah Cameron
Bax, S. (2003). CALL – past, present and future. System, 31, 13-28. Available: http://www.iateflcompsig.org.uk/media/callpresentpastandfuture.pdfhttp://www.iateflcompsig.org.uk/media/callpresentpastandfuture.pdf Beatty, K. (2003). Teaching and researching computer-assisted language learning. New York: Longman. Chapelle, C. A. (2001). Computer applications in second language acquisition. New York: Cambridge. Kern, R., & Warschauer, M. (2000). Theory and practice of network-based language teaching. In M. Warschauer & R. Kern (Eds.), Network-based language teaching: Concepts and practice (pp. 1-19). New York: Cambridge University Press.Theory and practice of network-based language teaching. Levy, M. (1997) CALL: Context and conceptualization. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Warschauer, M., & Healey, D. (1998). Computers and language learning: An overview. Language Teaching, 31, 57-71. Available:http://www.gse.uci.edu/faculty/markw/overview.htmlhttp://www.gse.uci.edu/faculty/markw/overview.html