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Presentation on theme: "BY ISAAC, DANIEL, COLBY 2, HARISH AND SHAWN The Immune system."— Presentation transcript:


2 Koch’s postulates 1) The pathogen should always be found un the body if a sick organism and should not be found in a healthy one. 2)The pathogen must be isolated and grown in the laboratory in pure culture. 3)When the cultured pathogens are placed in a new host, they should cause the same disease that infected the original host. 4)The injected pathogen should be isolated from the second host. It should be identical to the original pathogen.

3 How Diseases Are Spread Physical Contact: Such as sneezing, coughing, interacting, and sexual contact. Contaminated Food & Water: There could be food poisoning, bacteria in uncooked meat, untreated water/sewage, lack of sanitation. Infected Animals: Animals can be used as vectors for diseases, bacteria, and parasites.

4 Agents of Disease Viruses: Tiny particles that invade and replicate within living cells. Bacteria: Most bacteria are harmless to humans. They breakdown tissue and release toxins. Protists: Protists cause diseases and are living organisms in other organisms. Worm: Small worm- like organisms that live inside of bodies and live off of the organism.

5 Fighting Infectious Diseases Antibiotics: Compounds that kill bacteria without harming the cells of the human or animal host. Discover of Antibiotics: One antibiotic, penicillin, was discovered by accidently in 1928 by the Scottish bacteriologist Alexander Fleming. Over-the-Counter Drugs: Medicines that you can have without a persciption.

6 Nonspecific Defense Skin: The bodies most important nonspecific defense is the skin. Inflammatory Response: The inflammatory response is anon specific defense reaction to tissues damage caused by injury or infection. Interferon: It interferes with the growth of viruses. Fever: Caused by chemicals that the immune system releases to raise the core body temperature.

7 Specific Defense Antigens: A substance that triggers an immune response. Antibodies: Protiesn that recognize and bind to antigens. Immune Response: The immune response is a specific defense that attacks a particular disease causing agent. Pathogen: A pathogen is a disease causing agent.

8 Acquired Immunity Vaccination: The injection of a weakened form of a pathogen to produce immunity. Active Immunity: The type of immunity produced by the body’s reaction to a vaccine. It appears after exposure to an antigen. Passive Immuntity: When you get antibodies from other organisms and are injected into the bloodstream.

9 Allergies Allergies: An overreaction of the immune system to an antigen. Common Allergies: Common allergies are pollen, dust, mold, ad bee stings. Histamine: The chemical that is released to increase blood flow to a specific area. Asthma: Allergies cause this condition. A chronic respiratory disease in which the air passages become narrower than normal.

10 AIDS, An Immunodeficiency Disease What is AIDS: It is another type of immunodeficiency disease. It is a result from a viral infection that destroys helper t- cells. HIV: The HIV virus deteriorates the immune system while multiplying itself. Prevention: The only no risk behavior with respect to HIV and AIDS in abstinence.

11 Safety Air Quality: The air that you breath comes into very close contact with the tissue in your lungs and blood making it easy for antigens to enter the body. Carbon Monoxide: It is an odorless gas that can kill humans. It is found when certain compounds are found. Ozone: A highly reactive form of oxygen, is another gas found in the air that s a potential risk factor when it occurs at ground level.

12 Questions

13 1. What is a pathogen? a. Agents that cause diseases b. Compounds that that kill bacteria without harming the cells of the human c. Protect the skin from penetration d. Increase body temperature to help white blood cells

14 2. When does an immune response happen? a. When tissue is damaged by injury to or infection b. When neurons in the brain damaged c. When white cells are destroyed d. When b-cells and t-cells are destroyed by incoming disease agents

15 3. What is the reason for a Fever? a. To kill pathogens with increased body temperature b. Create a better environment for white cells to navigate c. To trigger an immune response d. a and b

16 4. What produces antibodies? a. B-cells b. T-cells c. antigens d. pathogen

17 5. What is the immune systems first layer of defense? a. Skin b. Non-Specific immune defense c. Anti-body markers d. B-cells

18 6. What do the B-cells do for the immune system? a. Produce antibodies b. Engulf and destroy infected cells c. Both a and b d. Mark infected cell for destruction

19 7. What does the immune system do for the body a. Protect body from foreign invaders b. Digest and remove waste c. Circulate the blood through the body d. None of the above

20 8. Vaccines prevent illness by… a. Virus b. Bacteria c. Both a and b d. None of the above

21 9. How does the body build up immunity? a. B-Cells store the memory of how to make the specific antibody needed b. T-Cells will automatically kill pathogens that enter the body c. The body will not allow pathogens to enter a second time

22 10. What is the body’s primary defense against its own cells when they have become cancerous or infected by viruses? a. cell-Mediated Immunity b. Provide defense against abnormal cells and pathogens inside its own cells c. Humoral immunity d. Non-specific defense

23 Answer Key 1. A 2. A 3. D 4. A 5. A 6. C 7. A 8. A 9. A 10. A

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