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The Digestive System.

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Presentation on theme: "The Digestive System."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Digestive System

2 Functions: mechanical and chemical breakdown of food
15.1 Functions: mechanical and chemical breakdown of food        *absorption of nutrients Consists of alimentary canal and accessory organs

3 Wall of the Alimentary Canal

4 Mixing Movements Contractions mix food with digestive juices Peristalsis - pushes food down the tube

5 Anatomy of the Mouth

6 Submandibular - below jaw Sublingual - under tongue
Salivary Glands Parotid - ear, cheek Submandibular - below jaw Sublingual - under tongue

7 Esophagus esophageal hiatus is where it penetrates the diaphragm
cardiac sphincter at entrance to stomach

8 STOMACH MUSCLES:   Longitudinal, Circular, Oblique

9 Stomach Regions Cardiac Fundic Body (greater and lesser curvature)

10 Stomach Lining Gastric Juices contain acids that break down food  - secreted by gastric glands PEPSIN  - most important digestive enzyme for breaking down food Mucus prevents stomach from digesting itself

11 Chyme - paste, after food has been broken down, released then into the duodenum via the pyloric sphincter valve Rugae - folds within stomach Gastric Pits contain glands to make juices

12 PANCREAS - secretes insulin which breaks down sugars
Pancreatic Juice also breaks down fat

13  Liver  1 large right lobe  | 1 smaller left lobe

14 Liver - ducts and vessels
Hepatic duct --> to common bile duct Hepatic portal vein - circulates blood through liver

15 Liver Functions 1. blood glucose levels
2.  breakdown of lipids and fats 3.  protein metabolism 4.  stores vitamins 5.  destroys damaged RBCs 6.  removes toxins 7.  secretes bile

16 Remember Bili Lights? Using bili lights is a therapeutic procedure performed on newborn or premature infants to reduce elevated levels of bilirubin. If blood levels of bilirubin become too high, the bilirubin begins to dissolve in the body tissues, producing the characteristic yellow eyes and skin of jaundice. 

17 Gall Bladder - under liver
          cystic duct --> common bile duct           stores bile, digests fat                  *gallstones may form

18 Membrane holds it together, contains blood vessels
Small Intestine Starts at the pyloric sphincter 1.  Duodenum 2.  Jejunum 3.  Ileum *Mesentery  Membrane holds it together,  contains blood vessels

19 Greater Omentum a  "curtain-like" membrane that covers the intestines, stores fat and lays like a drape

20 The main function of the small intestine is to secrete chemicals that break down food and carry the nutrients away in the blood stream.  In one word: ABSORPTION

21 Large Intestine Cecum Appendix Colon (4 parts)
Cecum  Appendix  Colon (4 parts)     Cecum     Ascending     Transverse      Descending      Sigmoid Rectum Anus

22 Function of Large Intestine
Secretes mucus,  reabsorbs water, contains bacteria to aid in digestion  (intestinal flora) Mass Movements (defecation) - removes undigested food The main job is  WATER REABSORPTION...

23 stomach transverse colon ascending colon descending colon cecum appendix sigmoid colon rectum

24 1.  esophagus 2.  liver 3.  stomach 4. pyloric sphincter 5.  duodenum 6.  pancreas 7.  jejunum 8.  ileum 9.  cecum 10. appendix 11.  ascending colon 12.  descending colon 13.  sigmoid colong 14.  anus

25 Disorders of the Digestive System
GERD Gastroesophageal reflux disease


27 Lactose Intolerance  Inability to digest milk, can cause stomach upset

28 Appendicitis

29 Hernia intestines poke through abdominal muscles

30 Gallstones (Cholelithiasis)
Gallstones are made from cholesterol and other things found in the bile. They can be smaller than a grain of sand or as large as a golf ball.

31 Gallstones within the gall bladder


33 Gastric Bypass Surgery



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